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Imaging Fusion Technology for Evaluating Intracranial Veins

  • Giovanni MalferrariEmail author
  • Marialuisa Zedde
  • Patrizio Prati
Chapter

Abstract

The technology of the real-time imaging fusion has been devised and applied to different body regions and pathological situations; it has been developed through the combination of multiple imaging modalities, and in its extreme evolution, it has become a veritable virtual navigator. Its aim is to combine a static modality and a dynamic modality.

Keywords

Transcranial Fusion imaging Virtual navigator Neuroradiology Neurosonology 

Supplementary material

Movie 9.1: Temporal window, B-mode axial view: the movie highlights the double-scan, with the overlapping of the MRI on the ultrasound images, from the mesencephalic to the ventricular plane. Note how there is always a perfect correspondence of the anatomical landmarks and structures viewed with the two imaging methods. This is an example of correspondence preliminarily obtained in B-mode before the vascular evaluation (AVI 2146 kb)

Movie 9.2: Dynamic scanning of the contralateral transverse sinus in Color-mode compared to an adequate virtual MRI scan: there is an excellent correspondence of landmarks and structures (AVI 926 kb)

Movie 9.3: The movie highlights the dynamic phase of the situation represented in Figure 10, i.e. the superimposing, with shadowing effect, of the MRI scan with that ultrasound imaging. It shows the excellent correspondence of the landmarks and structures under investigation, which forms the basis for the correct sampling of the Doppler waveform (AVI 1484 kb)

Movie 9.4: The video shows a dynamic example of insonation as suggested by Figures 9.11 and 9.12, with access to the posterior cranial fossa and the highlight of the ipsilateral TS in the proximal and medium segment in Power-mode. Note how the transducer position adjustments perfectly correspond to the variations of the MRI scanning virtual plane (AVI 916 kb)

Movie 9.5: The movie shows the dynamic correspondent, in Color-mode, of Figure 9.13, with insonation of the ipsilateral TS and access to the posterior cranial fossa, color-coded in red, in comparison with the matching MRI scan. Note how minimum probe tilting adjustments correspond to the same appropriate adjustments of the scanning plane of MRI (AVI 2251 kb)

Movie 9.6: The movie clearly shows the dynamic correspondence of the static image seen in Fig. 15, with the sampling of the Doppler waveform of the distal ipsilateral TS and the MRI topographic correspondence. The movie illustrates how the slight adjustments of probe position and inclination correspond to synchronous movements of MRI scanning, in the same direction (AVI 1604 kb)

Movie 9.7: In the movie it is clear the dynamic correspondence of the static image seen in Fig. 15, but with the Doppler waveform sampling of the medium ipsilateral TS and MRI topographic correspondence. In the movie it can be seen that the slight adjustments of the probe position and inclination correspond to synchronous movements of MRI scanning, in the same direction (AVI 1458 kb)

Movie 9.8: Movie 9.5 shows the dynamic correspondence of the static image of Fig. 15 with the Doppler waveform sampling of the proximal ipsilateral TS and MRI topographic correspondence. In the movie it can be seen that the slight adjustments of the probe position and inclination correspond to synchronous movements of MRI scanning, in the same direction (AVI 799 kb)

Movie 9.9: The movie shows the dynamic manifestation of the same situation illustrated in Figure 9.17 with the insonation of the SPS and high speed Doppler waveform velocity, towards the probe. Note that also in this case small adjustments of the probe position correspond to the same minor variations of the virtual MRI scanning plane (AVI 687 kb)

Movie 9.10: Dynamic representation of the situation shown in Figure 18, with a real time flow waveform and the corresponding MRI virtual plane variations and adjustment (AVI 779 kb)

Movie 9.11: Dynamic version of the approach to the SRS insonation, as illustrated in Fig. 19. There is the confirmation of the corrections of the sequential MRI scanning plane corresponding to the ultrasound probe movement (AVI 1586 kb)

Movie 9.12: Similarly to Movie 9.11, Movie 9.12 shows the real time scanning and dynamic sampling of the SRS through the access via the posterior fossa, with a mesencephalic approach. Note the perfect correspondence between the ultrasound and the MRI plane of the structures visualized (AVI 577 kb)

Movie 9.13: Dynamic scanning of the GV according to the coordinates defined in Fig. 9.21 (AVI 824 kb)

References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Malferrari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marialuisa Zedde
    • 1
  • Patrizio Prati
    • 2
  1. 1.Stroke Unit, Neurology Unit, Dept. of Neuromotor PhysiologyArcispedale Santa Maria Nuova IRCCSReggio EmiliaItaly
  2. 2.CIDIMUTurinItaly

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