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Ultrasound Machine: The Significance of Venous Preset

  • Giovanni MalferrariEmail author
  • Marialuisa Zedde
  • Patrizio Prati
Chapter

Abstract

A reliable and dedicated setting of the ultrasound machine becomes crucial also for the study of the intracranial veins with transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS). It is necessary to start from what is known of the arterial district and to modify the individual parameters on the basis of the peculiar characteristics of the intracranial venous circulation, which is, however, characterized by the lack of valves. Therefore, the flow direction in each vein and sinus is directly driven by the pressure gradient and by the flow velocity, which is definitely lower than the one of the arteries.

Keywords

Transcranial PRF Ultrasound Frequency Doppler 

Supplementary material

Movie 5.1: TCCS from the temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Power-Mode with PRF 1.5 KHz (AVI 286 kb)

Movie 5.2: TCCS from the temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Power-Mode with PRF 1.0 KHz (AVI 568 kb)

Movie 5.3: TCCS from the temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Power-Mode with PRF 0.5 KHz (AVI 261 kb)

Movie 5.4: TCCS from the temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-Mode with PRF 1.5 KHz (AVI 564 kb)

Movie 5.5: TCCS from the temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-Mode with PRF 1.0 KHz (AVI 378 kb)

Movie 5.6: TCCS from the temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-Mode with PRF 0.5 KHz (AVI 418 kb)

Movie 5.7: The movie shows that a high resolution preset with a strict adherence to the realistic size of vessels MCA and dMCV can be better distinguished as separate structures in Power-mode. (AVI 336 kb)

Movie 5.8: TCCS from temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-mode, with approach for posterior cranial fossa and Color box pointed on the ipsilateral and contralateral TS. PRF 4.5 kHz (AVI 1053 kb)

Movie 5.9: TCCS from temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-mode, with approach for posterior cranial fossa and Color box pointed on the ipsilateral and contralateral TS. PRF 3.5 kHz. (AVI 1891 kb)

Movie 5.10: TCCS from temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-mode, with approach for posterior cranial fossa and Color box pointed on the ipsilateral and contralateral TS. PRF 2.5 kHz. (AVI 902 kb)

Movie 5.11: TCCS from temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-mode, with approach for posterior cranial fossa and Color box pointed on the ipsilateral and contralateral TS. PRF 1.5 kHz. (AVI 848 kb)

Movie 5.12: TCCS from temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-mode, with approach for posterior cranial fossa and Color box pointed on the ipsilateral and contralateral TS. PRF 1.3 kHz. (AVI 760 kb)

Movie 5.13: TCCS from temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-mode, with approach for posterior cranial fossa and Color box pointed on the ipsilateral and contralateral TS. PRF 0.75 kHz. (AVI 610 kb)

Movie 5.14: TCCS from temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-mode, with approach for posterior cranial fossa and Color box pointed on the ipsilateral and contralateral TS. PRF 0.5 kHz. (AVI 896 kb)

Movie 5.15: TCCS from temporal bone window in axial scanning plane in Color-mode, with approach for posterior cranial fossa and Color box pointed on the ipsilateral and contralateral TS. PRF 0.5 kHz and lack of wall filter. (AVI 2631 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Malferrari G, Zedde M (2012) Guida pratica allo studio sonologico del distretto venoso extra ed intracranico. Edizioni La DottaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Malferrari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marialuisa Zedde
    • 1
  • Patrizio Prati
    • 2
  1. 1.Stroke Unit, Neurology Unit, Dept. of Neuromotor PhysiologyArcispedale Santa Maria Nuova IRCCSReggio EmiliaItaly
  2. 2.CIDIMUTorinoItaly

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