Ultrasound Anatomy and How to do the Examination

  • Giovanni MalferrariEmail author
  • Marialuisa Zedde
  • Patrizio Prati


Most of the cerebral venous drainage is carried by the extracranial venous system in the neck. The main routes of drainage are the IJVs, the vertebral venous system, and the deep cervical veins, presenting a wide inter-individual variability both in the functional prevalence between them and in the postural effect [1–5].


Jugular Vertebral Ultrasound Valve Anastomosis 

Supplementary material

Movie 2.1: Transverse scan of J1 IJV, B-mode, with magnified view focusing on the movement of valve leaflets (AVI 8352 kb)

Movie 2.2: Longitudinal scan of J1 IJV in B-mode, highlighting the movement of the valve leaflets (WMV 803 kb)

Movie 2.3: Transverse scan of J1 IJV and VV at the valve level in B-mode. It is well evident the synchronism in the movements of the valve leaflets of both veins (AVI 2334 kb)

Movie 2.4: Transverse scan of J1 IJV and VV at the valve level in Color-mode. Also in this mode the synchronous valve movement in both veins is well evident (AVI 2323 kb)

Movie 2.5: Longitudinal scan of J1 IJV and VV at the valve level in B-mode. The simultaneous and synchronous movement of valve leaflets of both veins with similar ultrasound features (AVI 1610 kb)

Movie 2.6: The movie shows the dynamic movement of the vessel structures along the M-line focusing on IJV in longitudinal scan (WMV 4300 kb)

Movie 2.7: In the movie IJV and the carotid axis are shown in longitudinal scan in Color-mode with a trapezoid steering. The specular point of inversion of the blood flow direction between the two vessels is well evident (AVI 1384 kb)

Movie 2.8: Transverse scan of J3 IJV in Color-mode, with the common facial vein, accompanied respectively by the internal and external carotid artery (AVI 986 kb)

Movie 2.9: Longitudinal scan of J3 IJV in Color-mode with the carotid axis. It is noticeable the opposite flow direction in the vascular segments (AVI 1385 kb)

Movie 2.10: In this longitudinal scan in B-mode it is possible to identify the V1 VA surrounded by the venous plexus, where an anterior and posterior division is easy to differentiate (AVI 1100 kb)

Movie 2.11: It is the Color-mode view correspondent to the movie 2.10, with the color-coded signal of the vessel previously imaged in B-mode. The confluence of deep cervical branches in the proximal segment of VV is well evident (AVI 1485 kb)

Movie 2.12: Longitudinal scan of V2 VV with the correspondent segment of vertebral artery (AVI 1554 kb)

Movie 2.13: Transverse scan of IJV and VV in Color-mode, showing the plexiform distribution of the VV, surrounding the VA, with several deep cervical incoming branches (AVI 11698 kb)

Movie 2.14: J3 IJV scan with anterior approach in a longitudinal plane, showing IJV branches, particularly the common facial vein (AVI 2416 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Malferrari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marialuisa Zedde
    • 1
  • Patrizio Prati
    • 2
  1. 1.Stroke Unit, Neurology Unit, Dept. of Neuromotor PhysiologyArcispedale Santa Maria Nuova IRCCSReggio EmiliaItaly
  2. 2.CIDIMUTorinoItaly

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