Exploring Multiple Ontologies and WordNet Framework to Expand Query for Question Answering System

  • Santosh Kumar Ray
  • Shailendra Singh
  • B. P. Joshi


Query expansion plays a very important role in enhancing the performance of the Question Answering Systems. There are several methods proposed for query expansion and the use of ontologies has been the latest and popular choice of the researchers because of its effectiveness in building conceptual query. However most of these query expansion methods have used either a single domain specific ontology or WordNet and none of research work has been reported the use of ontologies and WordNet together. In the context of Worldwide Web based Question Answering Systems, the use of single ontology or WordNet has not proved to be sufficient to retrieve wide variety of heterogeneous information. In this paper, we have proposed an efficient query expansion method that uses multiple ontologies retrieved from semantic web search engine such as Swoogle and combines them with WordNet to disambiguate the context. We have experimented on a set of 300 questions collected from TREC and other resources to judge the accuracy of the proposed method. We have shown results using Google as well as with respect to few existing popular web-based Question Answering Systems like START, AnswerBus, BrainBoost, and Inferret.


Query Expansion Word Sense Disambiguation Ontology Match Question Answering System User Question 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Airio, E., Järvelin, K., Saatsi, P., Kekäläinen, J., Suomela, S.: CIRI — an ontology-based query interface for text retrieval. In Proc 11th Finnish Artificial Intelligence Conf. (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alani, H., Brewster, C., Shadbolt, N.: Ranking ontologies with AKTive Rank. In: 5th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2006). LNCS, vol. 4273, pp. 1–15 Springer-Verlag (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    AnswerBus, Question Answering System, website: http://answerbus.comGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    BrainBoots, Question Answering System, website: Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dey L., Singh S., Rai R., Gupta S.: Ontology Aided Query Expansion for Retrieving Relevant Texts. In Advances in Web Intelligence, LNCS, vol. 3528, pp. 126–132. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ding, L., Finin, T., Joshi, A., Pan, R., Cost, R. S., Peng, Y., Reddivari, P., Doshi, V. C., Sachs, J.: Swoogle: A semantic web search and metadata engine. In Proc. 13th ACM Conf. on Information and Knowledge Management (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Espinoza, M., Trillo, R., Gracia, J., Mena, E.: Discovering and Merging Keyword Senses using Ontology Matching. In 1st International Workshop on Ontology Matching at ISWC-2006 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guarino, N., Welty, C.: An Overview of OntoClean. In Handbook on Ontologies. Springer pp. 151–172 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Inferret, Question Answering System, website:http://asked.jpGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ioannis P., Klapaftis, G., Manandhar S.: Google & Wordnet based Word Sense Disambiguation. In Proceedings of the 22nd ICML Workshop on Learning & Extending Ontologies. Bonn, Germany (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Patel, C., Supekar, K., Lee, Y., Park, E.: OntoKhoj: A Semantic web portal for ontology searching, ranking and classification. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Web Information and Data Management, pp 58–61, ACM Press (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sabrina T., Rosni A., Enyakong, T.: Extending ontology tree using NLP techniques. Proceedings of National Conference on Research & Development in Computer Science REDECES 2001, Selangor, Malaysia, (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    START Question Answering System, website: Scholar
  14. 14.
    Text Retrieval Conference, http://trec.nist.govGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    WordNet, website:http://wordnet.princton.eduGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang, Y., Vasconcelos, W., Sleeman, D.: Ontosearch: An ontology search engine. In Proc. 24th SGAI Int. Conf. on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge, UK. (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Institute of Information Technology, India 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santosh Kumar Ray
    • 1
  • Shailendra Singh
    • 2
  • B. P. Joshi
    • 3
  1. 1.Birla Institute of TechnologyMuscatOman
  2. 2.Samsung India Software CenterNoidaIndia
  3. 3.Birla Institute of TechnologyNoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations