Struggles of the Word and the World

  • Shivali Tukdeo


This chapter sets the tone for looking at education policy from multiple locations, voices, stand-points and perspectives. While the enterprise of policy studies heavily relies on measuring, impact analysis and best possible solutions, my attention is directed at the cultural politics of education policy in India. How do we make sense of the enormous expansion of educational institutions and desires to access these spaces despite them being exclusionary, disciplining and alienating? How do caste blind assumptions and caste-driven practices impact everyday schooling and institutional cultures? How do educational ideals such as equality, autonomy and respect begin to change as they begin their institutional lives?


Education policy Cultural political economy (CPE) Exclusion Policy knowledge Circulation 


  1. Allais, S. (2012). “Economics imperialism,” education policy and educational theory. Journal of Education Policy, 27, 253–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altbach, P., & Balan, J. (2007). World class worldwide: Transforming research universities in Asia and Latin America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Altbach, P., & McGill Peterson, P. (Eds.). (2007). Higher education in the new century: Global challenges and innovative ideas. Rotterdam: Sense.Google Scholar
  4. Anyon, J. (2005). What ‘counts’ as education policy? Notes toward a new paradigm. Harvard Educational Review, 75(1), 65–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Apple, M. W. (1993). Official knowledge: Democratic education in a conservative age. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  6. Apple, M., Au, W., & Gandin, A. (2009). The Routledge international handbook of critical education. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball, S. J. (1998). Big policies/small world: An introduction to international perspectives in education policy. Comparative Education, 34(20), 119–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ball, S. J. (2016). Neoliberal education? Confronting the slouching beast. Policy Futures in Education, 14(8), 1046–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Banerjee, A., Banerji, R., Duflo, E., Glennerster, R., & Khemani, S. (2010). Pitfalls of participatory programs: Evidence from a randomized evaluation in education in India. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 2008.Google Scholar
  10. Beteille, A. (2010). The University at the crossroads. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1977/1990 second edition). Reproduction in education, society and culture. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Brock-Utne, B. (2000). WhoseEducation for All? New York: Falmer.Google Scholar
  13. Bruno, C., Khan, S., & Mears, A. (2018). Theoretical and methodological pathways for research on elites. Socio-Economic Review, 16(2), 225–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burbules, N., Bridges, D., Morwenna, G., & Smeyers, P. (2015). Varieties of interpretation in educational research: How we frame the project. In P. Smeyers, D. Bridges, M. Griffiths, & N. Burbules (Eds.), International handbook of interpretation in educational research (pp. 3–17). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chopra, R., Jeffery, P., & Reifeld, H. (2005). Educational regimes in contemporary India. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Clarke, J., Bainton, D., Lendvai, N., & Stubbs, P. (2015). Making policy move: Towards a politics of translation and assemblage. Bristol: Bristol University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Craig, D., & Porter, D. (2006). Development beyond neoliberalism: Governance, poverty reduction and political economy. London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. DALE, R. (1999). Specifying globalization effects on national policy: A focus on the mechanisms. Journal of Education Policy, 14(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Darder, A. (2015). Decolonizing interpretive research: A critical bicultural methodology for social change. The International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 14(2), 63–77.Google Scholar
  21. Denzin, N. (2017). Critical qualitative inquiry. Qualitative Inquiry, 23(1), 8–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deshpande, H. (2016). The Maratha Dalit divide. Open Magazine. Accessed on May 1, 2019.
  23. Deshpande, A., & Ramachandran, R. (2016). The changing contours of intergroup disparities and the role of preferential policies in a globalizing world: Evidence from India (Working Papers 267). Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of EconomicsGoogle Scholar
  24. Dreze, J. (Ed.). (2016). Social policy, essays from economic and political weekly. New Delhi: Orient BlackSwan.Google Scholar
  25. Dreze, J., & Sen, A. (2003). Basic education is a political issue. In J. Tilak (Ed.), Education, society and development: National and international perspectives (pp. 3–49). APH: New Delhi.Google Scholar
  26. Guru, G. (Ed.). (2009). Humiliation: Claims and context. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Guru, G., & Sarukkai, S. (2012). The cracked Mirror: An Indian debate on experience and theory. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Haddad, W. D., & Demsky, T. (1995). Education policy-planning process: An applied framework. Paris: UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.Google Scholar
  29. Ham, C., & Hill, M. (1984). The policy process in the modern capitalist state. Sussex: Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  30. Hickey, M. G., & Stratton, M. (2007). Schooling in India: Effects of gender and caste. Scholarlypartnershipsedu. 2(1), 6. Available at:
  31. Hill, D., & Kumar, R. (Eds.). (2011). Global neoliberalism and education and its consequences. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Hudson, J., & Lowe, S. (2004). Understanding the policy process: Analyzing welfare policy and practice. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  33. Jaffrelot, C., & Kalaiyarasan, A. (2018). Anxieties of the dominant. Indian Express. Accessed on April 30, 2018.
  34. Kamat, S. (2002). Development as hegemony: NGOs and the state in India. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Kapur, D. (2011). Addressing the trilemma of higher education. Seminar, 617. Available at:
  36. Kedzierski, M. (2016). English as a medium of instruction in East Asia’s higher education sector: A critical realist cultural political economy analysis of underlying logics. Comparative Education, 52(3), 375–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Khan, F. A. (2015). Mathematics and its discontents: How well does mathematics pedagogy serve the children of the poor? (Transnational Research Group Poverty and Education Working Paper Series). New Delhi: Max Weber Stiftung.Google Scholar
  38. Knight, J. (2008). Higher education in turmoil: The changing world of internationalization. Rotterdam: Sense.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kumar, A. P. (2016). Revisiting the rationale for reservations claims of ‘middle castes’. Economic and Political Weekly, L1, 47.Google Scholar
  40. Lindblom, C., & Cohen, D. (1979). Usable knowledge: Social science and social problem solving. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Lingard, B. (2000). It is and it isn’t: Vernacular globalization, educational policy, and restructuring. In N. Burbules & C. A. Torres (Eds.), Globalization and education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Lingard, B., Martino, W., & Rezai-Rashti, G. (2013). Testing regimes, accountabilities and education policy: Commensurate global and national developments. Journal of Education Policy, 28(5), 539–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lipman, P. (2013). Economic crisis, accountability, and the state’s coercive assault on public education in the USA. Journal of Education Policy, 28(5), 557–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Majumdar, M., & Mooij, J. (2011). Education and inequality in India. A classroom view. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. Mayo, C. (2007). Disputing the subject of sex: Sexuality and public school controversies. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  46. Mehrotra, S. K. (2006). The economics of elementary education in India: The challenge of public finance, private provision and household costs. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  47. Mooij, J. (2007). Is there an Indian policy process? An investigation into two social policy processes. Social Policy and Administration, 41(4), 323–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mooij, J., & Majumdar, M. (2011). Primary education in India: Empowerment of the marginalized or the reproduction of social inequalities? Paper presented at the innovation, development & human capabilities conference. Available at
  49. Mosse, D. (2005). Cultivating development: An ethnography of aid policy and practice. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  50. Mosse, D., & Lewis, D. (Eds.). (2005). The aid effect: Giving and governing in international development. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  51. Mukhopadhyay, R., & Sriprakash, A. (2011). Global frameworks, local contingencies: Policy translations and education development in India. Compare, 41(3), 311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mundy, K. (1998). Educational multilateralism and world disorder. Comparative Education Review, 42(4), 448–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mundy, K., Green, A., Lingard, B., & Verger, A. (Eds.). (2016). The handbook of global education policy. London: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  54. Mungekar, B. (2016). March of the Maratha. Indian Express. Accessed on May 2, 2019.
  55. Naik, J. P. (1979). Equality quality and quantity: The elusive triangle in Indian education. International Review of Education, 25(2/3), 167–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Naik, J. P. (1997). The education commission and after. New Delhi: APH Publishing.Google Scholar
  57. Nambissan, G., & Rao, S. (Eds.). (2016). Sociology of education in India. Changing contours and emerging concerns. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Newman, J. (2014). Landscapes of antagonism: Local governance, neoliberalism and austerity. Urban Studies, 51, 3290–3305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Newman, J., & Clarke, J. (2009). Publics, politics and power: Remaking the public in public services. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  60. Parsons, W. (1995). Public policy: An introduction to the theory and practice of policy analysis. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  61. Pillow, W. (2004). Unfit subjects: Education policy and the teen mother, 1972-2002. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ramachandran, V., & Naorem, T. (2013, November). What it means to be a Dalit or Tribal child in our schools a synthesis of a six-state qualitative study. Economic and Political Weekly, xlviii(44).Google Scholar
  63. Rampal, A., & Mander, H. (2013). Lessons on food and hunger: Pedagogy of empathy for democracy. Economic and Political Weekly, 50–58.Google Scholar
  64. Rao, P. (2014). New perspectives in the history of Indian education. Hyderabad: Orient and Blackswan.Google Scholar
  65. Rizvi, F (2004) Debating globalization and education after September 11. Comparative Education 40, 2: 157-171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rizvi, F., & Lingard, B. (2000). Globalization and education: Complexities and contingencies. Educational Theory, 50(4), 419–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Robertson, S. L., & Dale, R. (2015). Toward a “critical cultural political economy” account of the globalising of education. Globalisation, Societies, and Education, 13(1), 149–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rudolph, L. I., & Rudolph, S. H. (1972). Education and politics in India. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Sadgopal, A. (2003). Education for too few. Frontline, 20(24). Accessed on May 2, 2019.
  70. Sadgopal, A. (2008). Common school system and the future of India. Radical Notes.
  71. Sagar, S. (2006). Khairlanji’s Strange and Bitter Crop.
  72. Seetaraman, G. (2017). Maratha community’s reservation demand a political headache for CM Devendra Fadnavis. Economic Times. Accessed on April 30, 2019.
  73. Sharma, A. (2008). Logics of empowerment: Development, gender, and governance in neoliberal India. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  74. Shaw, K. M. (2004). Using feminist critical policy analysis in the realm of higher education the case of welfare reform as gendered educational policy. The Journal of Higher Education, 75(1), 56–79.Google Scholar
  75. Smeyers, P., Bridges, D., Burbules, N. C., & Griffiths, M. (Eds.). (2015). International handbook of interpretation in educational research. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  76. Stein, S. (2004). The culture of education policy. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  77. Steiner-Khamsi, G. (Ed.). (2004). The global politics of educational borrowing and lending. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  78. Stone, D. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  79. Stubbs, P. (2018). Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Power, expertise and the hegemonic temporalities of austerity. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 31, 25–39.Google Scholar
  80. Tapan, M. (2014). Ethnographies of schooling in contemporary India. Delhi: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Taylor, S., Rizvi, F., Lingard, B., & Henry, M. (1997). Educational policy and the politics of change. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  82. Teltumbde, A. (2016). Behind the ire of marathas. Economic and Political Weekly, 51(40)Google Scholar
  83. Tilak, J. B. G. (1990). Political economy of education in India. Buffalo: State University of New York.Google Scholar
  84. Tilak, J. B. G. (1997). The Dilemma of reforms in financing higher education in India. Higher Education Policy, 10(1), 7–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tukdeo, S. (2015). Class divided: Global pressures, domestic pulls and a fractured education policy in India. Policy Futures in Education., 13(2), 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Van Zanten, A. (2005). New modes of reproducing social inequality in education: The changing role of parents, teachers, schools and educational policies. European Educational Research Journal, 4(3), 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vasavi, A. R. (2016). The culture of government schools. Seminar India, 677.
  88. Velaskar, P. (1990). Unequal schooling as a factor in the reproduction of social inequality in India. Sociological Bulletin, 39(1 &2), 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Velaskar, P. (2010). Quality and inequality in Indian education. Contemporary Education Dialogue, 7(1), 58–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Verger, A., Fontdevila, C., & Zancajo, A. (2017). Multiple paths towards education privatization ina globalizing world: A cultural political economy. Journal of Education Policy, 1–31.Google Scholar
  91. Weiner, M. (1991). The child and the state in India. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature India Private Limited 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shivali Tukdeo
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Advanced StudiesBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations