None of the Above: The Catuṣkoṭi in Indian Buddhist Logic

  • Graham Priest
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics book series (PROMS, volume 152)


The catuṣkoṭi (Greek: tetralemma; English: four corners) is a venerable principle of Indian logic, which has been central to important aspects of reasoning in the Buddhist tradition. What, exactly, it is, and how it is applied, are, however, moot—though one thing that does seem clear is that it has been applied in different ways at different times and by different people. Of course, Indian logicians did not incorporate the various interpretations of the principle in anything like a theory of validity in the modern Western sense; but the tools of modern non-classical logic show exactly how to do this. The tools are those of the paraconsistent logic of First Degree Entailment and some of its modifications.


Catuṣkoṭi Buddhism Nāgārjuna Ineffability First Degree Entailment Plurivalent logic 

Mathematics Subject Classification (2000)

Primary 03B53 Secondary 03B50 


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Philosophy, The Graduate CenterCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

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