Eco-Friendly Polymer-Layered Silicate Nanocomposite–Preparation, Chemistry, Properties, and Applications

  • Raghavan Prasanth
  • Peter Samora Owuor
  • Ravi Shankar
  • Jarin Joyner
  • Suppanat Kosolwattana
  • Sujin P. Jose
  • Pei Dong
  • Vijay Kumar Thakur
  • Jung Hwi Cho
  • Manjusha Shelke
Chapter
Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT, volume 74)

Abstract

This chapter aims at exploring the revolutionary field of nanotechnology and some of its promising aspects in polymer nanocomposites in view of preparation, characterization, materials properties, and processing of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites. These materials are attracting considerable interest in polymer science research. Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites are an important class of hybrid, organic/inorganic materials with substantially improved mechanical, thermal, and thermomechanical properties in comparison to pristine polymers. In addition, they also show superior ultraviolet (UV) as well as chemical resistance and are widely being investigated for improving gas barrier and flame retardant properties. Hectorite and montmorillonite are among the most commonly used smectite-type layered silicates for the preparation of polymer–clay nanocomposites. Smectites are a valuable mineral class for industrial applications due to their high cation exchange capacities, surface area, surface reactivity, adsorptive properties, and, in the case of hectorite, high viscosity and transparency in solution. A wide range of polymer matrices are explored for the preparation of polymer–clay nanocomposites, however, this chapter deals with special emphasis on biodegradable polymers––cellulose and natural rubber. Also, the chapter describes the common synthetic techniques in producing polymeric layered silicate nanocomposites, its properties, and applications.

Keywords

Polymer Composite Layered silicates Clay modification Biopolymer Green composite Polymer–clay nancomposite Cellulose nanocomposite Natural rubber–clay nanocomposite 

Abbreviations

AFM

Atomic force microscope

AMPS

2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid

CA

Cellulose acetate

CAB

Cellulose acetate bioplastic

CB

Carbon black

CEC

Cation exchange capacity

CNBR

Carboxylatedacrylonitrile butadiene rubber

Cs30B

Cloisite 30B

Cs93A

Cloisite 93A

CTAB

Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

e.g

Example

EA

Ethanolamine

EIC

English Indian Clay

ENR

Epoxidized natural rubber

EPDM

Ethylene-propylene thermoplastic rubber

EPDM-g-MAH

Maleatedethylene-propylene thermoplastic rubber

FHT

Sodiumfluorohectorite

HRTEM

High resolution transmission electron microscopy

IIR

Isobutylene–isoprene rubber

LDH

Layered double hydroxides clay

LS

Layered silicate

MFC

Microfibrillated cellulose

MMT

Montmorillonite

MMT-2M2HT

MMT modified with dimethyl dihydrogenated tallow

MMT-MT2EtOH

MMT modified with methyl tallow bis-2-hydroxyl quaternary ammonium

MMT-ODA

Octadecylamine

MMT-ODA

Primary amine

MMT-ODTMA

MMT modified with octadecyltrimethylamine

MMT-TMDA

Quaternary amine

Na-MMT

Sodium montmorillonite

NBR

Nitrile butadiene rubber

NMMO

N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide

NR

Natural rubber

OMLS

Organically modified layered silicate

OMMT

Organically modified clay

PANI

Polyaniline

phr

Parts per hundred rubber

PLA

Polylactic acid

PMMA

Poly(methylmethacrylate)

MMA

Methylmethacrylate

PNC's

Polymer nanocomposites

PP

Polypropylene

PUR

Polyurethane rubber

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

RTIL

Room temperature ionic liquid

SBR

Styrene butadiene-rubber

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

SNR

Synthetic natural rubber

TEM

Transmission electron microscope

TiO2

Tin oxide

TO

Tetraoctadecylammoniumbromide

UMMT

Unmodified clay

US

United States

UV

Ultra-violet

XRD

X-ray diffraction

ZnO

Zinc oxide

Units

%

Percentage

°C

Degree celsius

Angstrom

g mol−1

Gram per mole

GPa

Giga pascal

H

Hour/Hours

J Kg−1

Joule per kilogram

kHz

Kilohertz

kJ Kg−1

Kilojoule per kilogram

MPa

Mega pascal

nD

Diffractive index

nm

Nanometer

W m−1 °C−1

Watt per meter per degree Celsius

wt%

Weight percentage

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raghavan Prasanth
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Samora Owuor
    • 1
  • Ravi Shankar
    • 3
  • Jarin Joyner
    • 1
  • Suppanat Kosolwattana
    • 1
  • Sujin P. Jose
    • 1
  • Pei Dong
    • 1
  • Vijay Kumar Thakur
    • 4
  • Jung Hwi Cho
    • 1
  • Manjusha Shelke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineeringRice UniversityHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials ScienceRice UniversityHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Fujifilm Imaging Colorants, IncNew CastleUSA
  4. 4.School of Mechanical and Materials EngineeringWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

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