Advertisement

China and India: Comparisons of Naval Strategies and Future Competition

  • Tung-Chieh Tsai
Chapter

Abstract

Following the rise of China, the rise of India has also become the focus of global attention. The US National Intelligence Council (NIC) has concluded that the emergence of China and India as new players on the global stage, similar to a united Germany in the nineteenth century and a powerful United States in the early twentieth century, will transform the geopolitical landscape. Alongside their economic achievement, transformation of their foreign strategies is also important for observing the possible impact of China and India on each other and on the rest of world, especially on the emerging maritime security environment. In this paper we first describe why maritime strategy is crucial to the two countries and then explain what they stress in their new policies. After analyzing two arenas with potential conflict in the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, we conclude that, even though China is under focus at present, India is also an important naval power that China cannot afford to ignore in its plans to develop a blue-water navy and become a real global player.

Keywords

Maritime strategy China India Indian Ocean South China Sea 

References

  1. Abdus Sabur AKM (1995) South Asian security in the post Cold War era. In: Iftekharuzzaman (ed) South Asian security: primacy of internal dimension. Vikas Publishing House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  2. Azam KJ (ed) (1992) India’s defence policy for the 1990s. Sterling Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  3. Bedford C (2009) The view from the west: string of pearls: China’s maritime strategy in India’s backyard. Can Nav Rev 4(4):37–38Google Scholar
  4. Berlin DL (2006) India in the Indian Ocean. Nav War Coll Rev 59(2):58–89Google Scholar
  5. Bower E (2010) Hillary Clinton: a secretary of State fluent in ASEAN. Southeast Asia from the Corner of 18th & K Street, 20 July 2010. http://csis.org/files/publication/072010_seasia_newsletter.pdf
  6. Chakraborti T (2007) India’s Southeast Asia Policy in the 21st century. In: Y Yagama Reddy (ed) Emerging India in Asia-Pacific. New Century Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  7. Chellaney B (2011) Water: Asia’s new battleground. Georgetown University Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen Hurgn-yu (2010) Nanhai Zhengduan de Zhengzhi yu Falumian Fengxi (Political and legal analysis on conflicts in South China Sea). Quanqiu Zhengzhi Pinglun (Review of Global Politics) 32:3Google Scholar
  9. Chris Rahman (2010) China’s maritime strategic agenda. Policy Analysis, 28 April 2010, p 2Google Scholar
  10. Cohen SP (2001) India: emerging power. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Cole BD (2009) More red than expert: Chinese sea power during the Cold War. In: Erickson AS, Goldstein LJ, Lord C (eds) China goes to sea: maritime transformation in comparative historical perspectives. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, p 320Google Scholar
  12. Das P (ed) (2010) India’s border management: select documents. Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  13. Erickson AS, Goldstein LJ, Lord C (eds) (2009) China goes to sea: maritime transformation in comparative historical perspectives. Naval Institute Press, AnnapolisGoogle Scholar
  14. Headquarters Ministry of Defense (Navy) (2007) Freedom to use the seas: India’s maritime military strategy. Headquarters Ministry of Defense, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  15. Holmes J (2011) China’s maritime strategy is more than naval strategy. China Brief 11(6):10–13Google Scholar
  16. Holmes J, Yoshihara T (2005) The influence of Mahan upon China’s Maritime strategy. Comp Strategy 24(1):23–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holmes J, Yoshihara T (2008) Chinese naval strategy in the 21st century: the turn to Mahan. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Iftekharuzzaman (1989) India Doctrine: Relevance for Bangladesh. In: Kabir MG, Hassan S (eds) Issues and challenges facing Bangladesh foreign policy. Bangladesh Society of International Studies, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  19. Nehru J (1999) The discovery of India. Teen Murti House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  20. Karl Pilny (translated by Chen Li) (2008) Yindu Zhongguo Ruhe Gaibian Shijie (How do India and China transform the world). China International Cultural Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  21. Khurana G (2004) Maritime security in the Indian Ocean. Strategy Anal 28(3):411–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kohli K (1996) Maritime power in peace and war: an Indian view. Afr Secur Rev 5(2). http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/ASR/5No2/5No2/MaritimePower.html
  23. Kolhi SN (1978) Sea power and the Indian Ocean. Tata McGrew-Hill, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  24. Lawrence W, Prabhakar S (2009) China’s ‘string of pearls’ in Southern Asia-Indian Ocean: implications for India and Taiwan. In: Vinod MJ, Yeong-kuang Ger, Surendra Kumar SY (eds) Security challenges in the Asia-Pacific region: The Taiwan factor. Viva Books International, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  25. Lawrence W, Prabhakar S (2011) China’s ‘out of the area’ naval deployments: issues and implications for India. Indian Institute of Technology Madras China Studies Centre Article No. 1, 28 July, 2011)Google Scholar
  26. Levathes L (1994) When China ruled the seas: the treasure fleet of the Dragon Throne 1405–1433. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  27. Lord C (2009) China and maritime transformations. In: Erickson AS, Goldstein LJ, Lord C (eds) China goes to sea: maritime transformation in comparative historical perspectives. Naval Institute Press, AnnapolisGoogle Scholar
  28. Mansingh L et al (1998) India foreign policy: agenda for the 21st century. Foreign Service Institute, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  29. Nair VK (2001) The Chinese threat: an Indian perspective. China Brief 1(9). http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=28480&tx_ttnews[backPid]=191&no_cache=1
  30. National Intelligence Council (2004) Mapping the global future, Report of the National Intelligence Council’s 2020 Project, December 2004, p 3Google Scholar
  31. Nayar BR, Paul TV (2003) India in the world order: searching for major-power status. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. NIC, Global trends 2025: a transformed world. http://www.dni.gov/nic/NIC_globaltrend2015.html#contents
  33. Panikkar K (1945) India and the Indian Ocean: an essay on the influence of sea power on Indian history. George Allen & Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Pant HV (2009) India in the Indian Ocean: growing mismatch between ambitions and capabilities. Pac Aff 82(2):279–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pehrson C (2006) String of pearls: meeting the challenge of China’s rising power across the Asian littoral. Strategic Studies Institute, The U.S. Army War College, Carlisle BarracksGoogle Scholar
  36. Prakash A (2006) At a seminar on warship building. Indian Navy, 22 March 2006. http://indiannavy.nic.in/cns_add6.htm
  37. Pushpinder Singh (1987) The Indian navy: modernization and strategy in the 1980s. Asian Defense Journal, July 1987, pp 4–19Google Scholar
  38. Raja Mohan C (2003) Crossing the Rubicon: the shaping of India’s new foreign policy. Viking, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  39. Ross R (2009) China’s naval nationalism: sources, prospects, and the U.S. response. Int Secur 34(2):46–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Saikal A (1992) The future of India and Southwest Asia. In: Babbage R, Gordon S (eds) India’s strategic future: regional state or global power? St. Martin’s Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Sanchez A (2007) India and China struggle over Latin oil, 21 September 2007. http://www.energypublisher.com/article.asp?id=11126
  42. Scott D (2007–2008) India’s drive for a Blue Water navy. J Mil Strategy Stud 10(2):38–40Google Scholar
  43. Scott D (2008) Sino-Indian security predicaments for the twenty-first century. Asian Secur 4(3):244–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shambaugh D (2004/05) China engages Asia: reshaping regional order. Int Secur 29(3):64–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh NB (ed) (1990) Foreign and defence policy for India in the 1990s. United Service Institution of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  46. Singh KR (2002) Navies of South Asia. Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  47. Sithara YJ, Fernando N (2010) China’s maritime relations with South Asia: from confrontation to co-operation (Part one). Strategic Analysis Paper, 24 November 2010, p 3Google Scholar
  48. Studeman M (1998) Calculating China’s advances in the South China Sea: identifying the triggers of ‘expansionism’. Nav War Coll Rev 51(2):78–85Google Scholar
  49. Sun Shihai (2000) Yindu de Fazhan ji qi Duiwai Zhanlue (India’s development and its foreign strategy). Chinese Social Science Publishing, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  50. Tung-Chieh Tsai (2007) The role of southeast Asia in India’s ‘look East’ policy. Taiwan J Southeast Asian Stud 4(2):3–26Google Scholar
  51. Tung-Chieh Tsai (2011) Dangdai Zhongguo Waijiao Zhengce (China’s new diplomacy: interpreting its connotation and tendency). Wunan Books, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  52. Yasheng Huang, Tarun Khanna (2003) Can India overtake China? Foreign Policy (July–August 2003), pp 74–80Google Scholar
  53. Yevgeny Bendersky (2004) India as a rising power. Asia Times, 20 August 2004Google Scholar
  54. Zhang Wei (2009) Yindu Haiyang Zhanlue Xilun (Analysis of India’s maritime strategy). Dangdai Sheke Shiye (Contemporary Social Science Perspective) 11, p 41Google Scholar
  55. Zhang Wei (ed) (2008) Guojia Haishang Anquan (National maritime security). Haichao Publishing, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang Wenmu (2006) Sea power and China’s strategic choices. China Secur, Summer 2006, 17–31Google Scholar
  57. Zheng Ruixiang, Rongyin (eds) (2006) Yindu de Jueqi yu Zhongyinguanxi (India’s rise and Sino-Indian relations). Contemporary World Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  58. Zinger MB (1993) The development of Indian naval strategy since 1971. Contemp South Asia 2:3, p 339Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of International PoliticsNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations