Tsunami research has been advanced by developments in theory and in the methods of observation. Coastal records such as tide gauges and inundation surveys have played an important role for a long time. Offshore observations have been undertaken widely across deep oceans. After the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, dense and wide offshore tsunami observation was begun. We now expect tsunami generation to be observed inside the focal areas of huge earthquakes. New observations require new theoretical frameworks. In Sect. 1.1, we briefly introduce the development of offshore observation using ocean-bottom pressure gauges. Section 1.2 illustrates the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake tsunami. This is to show what we know and what we do not know about that huge earthquake and tsunami. Section 1.3 introduces a new observation network that was deployed after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. This observation network is designed for the detection of tsunamis inside the focal area. In Sect. 1.4, we present the focus of this book. The wide use of ocean-bottom pressure gauges and the construction of new observation network can greatly advance our understanding of tsunami. This book is aimed to illustrate theoretical frameworks in analyzing these records.
KeywordsFluid dynamics Elastic dynamics Offshore observations The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake
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