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Fate of Pathogens in Composting Process

Chapter

Abstract

Composting toilet has a characteristic that it has possibility to stock pathogens for a while when the patient uses it. Then health hazard aspects must be considered in the case of composting toilet more than water flush type. In this chapter, the typical and important pathogenic microbes relating to composting toilet are introduced. And the fate of model microbes which indicates pathogenic microbes in composting toilet was shown here. The decreasing rate of them depends upon the operating condition. We have to consider what appropriate conditions for enhancing reduction of pathogens are, and the quantitative microorganism risk assessment (QMRA) method is explained here to consider the acceptable risk when we handled the material such as sawdust. Based on QMRA consideration, the required reduction level is revealed, and the appropriate indicator microbes are suggested for monitoring high-tolerant pathogens in compost. In addition, the methods to estimate the inactivation mechanisms of microbes in compost are suggested in this chapter.

Keywords

Appropriate indicator microbes Pathogens QMRA 

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Environmental ScienceOchanomizu UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Urban EngineeringThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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