Experiment of a Resource-Oriented Agro-Sanitation System for Urban Slum Area: Case of Indonesia

  • Neni Sintawardani
  • Ken UshijimaEmail author
  • Umi Hamidah
  • Yosuke Deguchi
  • Jovita Triastuti
  • Naoyuki Funamizu
  • Mitsuteru Irie
  • Tadaharu Ishikawa


This chapter describes case study of applicability assessment for resource-oriented agro-sanitation business for urban slum in Indonesia, based on interdisciplinary field survey, (1) economic feasibility assessment, (2) demand potential assessment, and (3) social acceptability. The value flow analysis evaluated garbage disposal cost and excreta disposal cost at 0.7 and 1.1%, respectively, of household income, which represents a reasonable cost to disposers. However, under the current disposal scheme, negative value due to excreta disposal to river appears to be passed on to downstream populations. The structure of this value flow indicates that little attention is paid to the negative externalities, indicating that a solution in this case may be difficult to obtain. The affordable initial cost of a new resource recycling system was evaluated and compared with the costs of a currently available compost toilet by evaluating equipment lifetimes and potential income streams available from the sale of human excrement fertilizers. To estimate a value for the human excrement fertilizer, real-world case study in Indonesia, in which money was paid in exchange for human urine, was referred to. The evaluated affordable initial cost derived was sufficiently comparable to the price of a cheaper composting toilet currently available in the market. This implies that such a resource recycling system is feasible even in an urban slum. Results of demand and supply assessment showed that if resource-oriented sanitation system was diffused, supply would excess demands in the circle of 32 km radius, therefore cost discussion should assume more than 32 km transportation. According to the results of case estimation of tea plantation, total cost for fertilizer provided by resource-oriented sanitation system is possibly competitive to the normal price of synthetic fertilizer. However, if compared to subsidized price for low-income farmers, it seems difficult to compete. Regarding social aspect, the context of Islamic law is important. Islamic authorities regarded the resource-oriented sanitation system as no problematic concept and acceptable in the context of Islamic law.


Material flow Value flow Sustainable design Initial cost Urban slum 



This research was financially supported by the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST-CREST), the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development of the Japan Science and Technology Agency and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JST-JICA-SATREPS), and JSPS KAKENHI Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S).


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neni Sintawardani
    • 1
  • Ken Ushijima
    • 2
    Email author
  • Umi Hamidah
    • 1
  • Yosuke Deguchi
    • 3
  • Jovita Triastuti
    • 1
  • Naoyuki Funamizu
    • 4
    • 5
  • Mitsuteru Irie
    • 6
  • Tadaharu Ishikawa
    • 7
  1. 1.Research Unit for Clean TechnologyIndonesian Institute of SciencesBandungIndonesia
  2. 2.Northern Regional Building Research Institute, Hokkaido Research Organization (HRO)AsahikawaJapan
  3. 3.Nippon Koei Co., LtdTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of Global Food ResourcesHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  5. 5.Research Institute of Humanity and Nature, Motoyama KamigamoKyotoJapan
  6. 6.Alliance for Research on North Africa, University of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  7. 7.Department of Environment and TechnologyTokyo Institute of TechnologyYokohamaJapan

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