The Concept of Resources Oriented Agro-Sanitation System and Its Business Model

  • Ken UshijimaEmail author
  • Naoyuki Funamizu
  • Takako Nabeshima
  • Nowaki Hijikata
  • Ryusei Ito
  • Mariam Sou/Dakoure
  • Amadou Hama Maïga
  • Neni Sintawardani


This chapter proposes concept of the sanitation business model, based on the discussions; what is necessary to solve current world’s sanitation issue and what is the limitation of current sanitation concept. Proposed policy was on the basis of the Postmodern Sanitation concept; (1) discuss a sanitation value chain which create and add a value to human excreta and its products, and build a sanitation business model to drive this sanitation value chain, (2) design the sanitation business model focusing on incentive for individual toilet users, (3) analyze current user’s value chain to find available potential resources, (4) connect these potential sanitation resources to next value chain, (5) make a financial plan based on market analysis of sanitation product, (6) find and organize facilitating organization to support individual toilet users’ business. This concept was applied for the case of rural area in Burkina Faso, and reasonable agro-sanitation business model was designed based on material flow analysis and value flow analysis.


Resource-oriented sanitation Value chain Sanitation business model Sahel Africa 



This concept was inspired through former research activities and discussions with Prof. Tadaharu ISHIKAWA, Prof. Mitsuteru IRIE, Mitsumasa YOKOTA, Shigeo OKAYA, Mayuko TOTSUKA, and Rui KOTANI. This study was supported by JST-JICA, JST-CREST, and JSPS.


  1. Crawford EW, Jayne TS, Kelly VA (2006) Alternative approaches for promoting fertilizer use in Africa, agriculture and rural development. Discussion Paper 22. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Driessen P, Deckers J (2001) Lecture notes on the major soils of the world. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization in United Nations), RomeGoogle Scholar
  3. FAO (Food and agriculture Organization) (2012) FAOSTAT. Accessed on Sept 2012
  4. Fogelberg K, Montes J, Soto B (2010) From excrement to pines to mushrooms to money in Bolivia. Sustain Sanitation Pract 5:4–9, EcoSan club, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  5. Griffith DC, Miller MA, Kelly-Hope LA (2006) Review of reported cholera outbreaks worldwide, 1995–2005. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75(5):973–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit) (2010) Basic overview of composting toilets (with or without urine diversion). Technology Review “Composting Toilets”, Draft version (Last updated: 14 September 2010), GTZGoogle Scholar
  7. Haq G, Cambridge H (2012) Exploiting the co-benefits of ecological sanitation. Curr Option Environ Sustain 4:431–435. Scholar
  8. Harada H (2007) A proposal of advanced sanitation system and attempts to improve Vietnamese sanitation. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Kyoto University, KyotoGoogle Scholar
  9. Hijikata N, Ushijima K, Ito R, Sawadogo B, Funamizu N (2012) Design of vegetable garden for income estimation toward to agro-sanitation business model, a case study in Burkina Faso. In: Proceedings of dry toilet conference 2012, Tampere, 23–25 Aug 2012Google Scholar
  10. Hyden G (1980) Beyond Ujamaa in Tanzania: underdevelopment and incaptured peasantry. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  11. Hyden G (2006) African politics in comparative perspective. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Ishikawa T, Nakanishi T, Ohta H, Qian X, Shinozawa K, Shimizu T, Ushijima K, Watanabe M, Yoshida M (2002) Chapter 6. Environmental improvement by recycling organic matter between urban and rural areas. In: Ohmachi T, Roman ER (eds) Metro Manila: In search of a sustainable future, University of the Philippines Press, Manila, pp 239–297Google Scholar
  13. JSCES (Japan Education Center of Environmental Sanitation) (2009) Johkasou systems for domestic wastewater treatment, 4th edn. JACES, JapanGoogle Scholar
  14. Lofrano G, Brown J (2010) Wastewater management through the ages: a history of mankind. Sci Total Environ 408(22):5254–5264. Scholar
  15. Lopez Zavala MA, Funamizu N, Takakuwa T (2001) Onsite wastewater differentiable treatment system: modeling approach. Water Sci Technol 46(6–7):317–324Google Scholar
  16. Lopez Zavala MA, Funamizu N, Takakuwa T (2002) Characterization of feces for describing the aerobic biodegradation of feces. J Environ Syst Eng 720:99–105.
  17. Maeda H (2008) Suisen toile no sangyou shi (Industrial history of water flush toilet). The University of Nagoya Press, Japan (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  18. Maksimovic C, Tejada-Guibert JA (ed) (2003) Frontiers in urban water management deadlock or hope (trans: Matsui S et al.). Gihodo shuppann, p 231Google Scholar
  19. Mara DD (2008) Sanitation now: what is good practice and what is poor practice? In: Proceedings of the IWA international conference ‘Sanitation Challenge: new sanitation and models of governance’, Wageningen, Netherlands, 19–21 May 2008Google Scholar
  20. Matsebe G, Osman A (2012) Ecological sanitation in urban South Africa: socio-cultural, design and operational challenge of Urine Diversion Dry (UDD) toilets and the impact on users’ perceptions. In: Proceedings of dry toilet conference 2012, Tampere, 23–25 Aug 2012Google Scholar
  21. Mitsumata N (2008) Fostering the material cycle between urban and suburban areas: the monetary transactions of night-soil in Kyoto during the Edo period. Doshisha Econ Assoc 60(2):259–281 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  22. MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism, Japan) (2013) Management of sewerage system. Accessed on 13 April 2013 (in Japanese)
  23. Nabeshima T (2011) Criticism of regional integration theory: through the analysis of society and nation-state in Africa. Media Commun Stud 60:13–34 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  24. Nakanishi T (1991) Suramu no keizaigaku (Economics in urban informal sector). University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. Onjo A (2004) On urbanization and the changes of urban-rural relations: nature, power and sewage disposal problems in Fukuoka, Japan: 1900–1930. Shien 141:1–28 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  26. Osterwalder A, Pigneur Y (2010) Business model generation: a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers. Wiley, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. Rosenquist LED (2005) A psychosocial analysis of the human-sanitation nexus. J Environ Psychol 25(3):335–346. Scholar
  28. Rüd S, Münck EV (2008) Ecological sanitation: selected example project from Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Europe. In: Proceedings of international conference ‘Pathways towards Sustainable Sanitation in Africa’, Ouagadougou, 24–27 Sept 2008Google Scholar
  29. UN (United Nations) (2010) Millennium development goals report 2010. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2006) Human development report 2006. United Nations Development Programme, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2013) Human development report 2013. United Nations Development Programme, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Ushijima K (2007) Study on water environment rehabilitation by introducing new toilet system in urban area of Southeast Asia. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  33. Ushijima K, Irie M, Sintawardani N, Triastuti J, Ishikawa T, Funamizu N (2011) Sanitation model for urban slum in Southeast Asia. In: Proceedings of 2nd IWA development congress & exhibition, Kuala Lumpur, 21–24 Nov 2011 (CD-ROM)Google Scholar
  34. Ushijima K, Hijikata N, Ito R, Funamizu N (2012a) Effect estimation of dry-toilet application for rural farmer family in Burkina Faso. J Arid Land Study 22(1):99–102Google Scholar
  35. Ushijima K, Funamizu N, Yokota M (2012b) Value network design approach for sanitation system in developing countries—lessons from two Japanese models. In: Proceedings of dry toilet conference 2012, Tampere, 23–25 Aug 2012Google Scholar
  36. Ushijima K, Irie M, Sintawardani N, Triastuti J, Ishikawa T, Funamizu N (2013a) Sustainable design of sanitation system based on material and value flow analysis for urban slum in Indonesia. Front Environ Sci Eng 7(1):120–126. Scholar
  37. Ushijima K, Sato R, Leray L, Hijikata N, Ito R, Funamizu N (2013b) Resource recycling system for human excreta based on the analysis of material flow related to agricultural production in rural household of Burkina Faso. J Water Policy Integr River Basin Manage 21:33–41 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  38. Ushijima K, Funamizu N, Nabeshima T, Hijikata N, Ito R, Sou M, Maiga AH Sintawardani N (2015) The postmodern sanitation—agro-sanitation business model as a new policy. Water Policy 17(2):283–298. Scholar
  39. Watanabe Z (1983) Toshi to noson no hazama (Interaction between urban and rural). Ronsosha, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  40. WHO (World Health Organization) (2010) World health statistics 2010. World Health Organization, p 177Google Scholar
  41. WHO (World Health Organization) (2013a) Health topics sanitation. Sited on 25 Jan 2013
  42. WHO (World Health Organization) (2013b) Choosing interventions that are cost effective. Sited on 8 May 2013
  43. Wilke I (2003) Psychology and sanitation: a personal perspective. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium, Lübeck, 7–11 Apr 2003Google Scholar
  44. Winblad U, Simpson-Hebert M (2004) Ecological sanitation—revised and enlarged edition. SEI, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  45. World Bank (2013) Burkina Faso at a glance. Accessed on April 2013

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken Ushijima
    • 1
    Email author
  • Naoyuki Funamizu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Takako Nabeshima
    • 4
  • Nowaki Hijikata
    • 5
  • Ryusei Ito
    • 5
  • Mariam Sou/Dakoure
    • 6
  • Amadou Hama Maïga
    • 6
  • Neni Sintawardani
    • 7
  1. 1.Northern Regional Building Research Institute, Hokkaido Research Organization (HRO)Midorigaoka AsahikawaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Global Food Resources, Hokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  3. 3.Research Institute of Humanity and NatureKyotoJapan
  4. 4.Research Faculty of Media and Communication StudiesHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  5. 5.Graduate School of EngineeringHokkaido UniversitySapporo CityJapan
  6. 6.International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE)OuagadougouBurkina Faso
  7. 7.Research Unit for Clean TechnologyIndonesian Institute of SciencesBandungIndonesia

Personalised recommendations