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Significance of Sex-Specific Ecological and Life History Traits on the Sustainable Exploitation of Sharks

  • Yasuko Semba
Chapter
Part of the Fisheries Science Series book series (FISHSS)

Abstract

Sharks, which maintain the role of top predator in aquatic ecosystems, have a reproductive system and life history traits that are quite different from those of most teleosts, including internal fertilization, slow growth, high age at maturity, and the live birth of only a few well-formed offspring. Although shark species show diversity in many traits such as body size, morphology, diet, habitat (vertically, horizontally, and latitudinally), and reproductive system (ovoviviparous and viviparous), sexual difference in various phenotypic traits is one of their major characteristics. Sex-specific phenotypic traits such as life history parameters and sexual segregation are illustrated, focusing on shortfin mako and other species. A survey of the literature on growth suggests that slow growth and large body size in females are a major trend in sharks with significant intersexual difference in growth. Sexual segregation of sharks is reported with varying degrees of resolution, but its pattern is variable depending on the species, and the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. The implication of intersexual difference in life history and behavioral traits is discussed from both evolutional and practical points of view. Existing studies that have evaluated the effect of sexual difference suggest the importance of including sex-specific traits in stock assessment and management, especially for species with marked sexual difference. Given its significance, both the study of sexual difference in the biological characteristics and the collection of sex-specific information on fishery statistics are important for understanding population dynamics and the sustainable exploitation of shark species.

Keywords

Behavioral traits Life history traits Mating system Sharks Sexual difference Sexual segregation Sustainable use 

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK and the Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Research Institute of Far Seas FisheriesJapan Fisheries Research and Education AgencyShizuokaJapan

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