Insect Brains: Minute Structures Controlling Complex Behaviors

Chapter

Abstract

Insects are the largest taxon of arthropods, characterized by a segmented body plan. They comprise the most abundant and diverse group of animals. Many insects show highly complex adaptive behaviors, including learning abilities, social interactions, and spatial orientation skills that, in simplified version, are reminiscent of the abilities of vertebrates and even humans. In contrast to their sophisticated behavior, their brain, however, is minute and simple compared to that of humans. Because of these features, many insects have become models for studies of the neuronal basis underlying specific behaviors.

The insect body is divided into three parts: the head, the thorax with wings and legs, and the abdomen. In most species, each part contains relatively autonomously operating neural circuits, which have functions in local sensing and motor control. The head contains the antennae, the compound eyes, the ocelli, various sense organs on the mouth parts, and, as part of the nervous system, the brain. The brain processes this multitude of sensory input and provides multisensory integration. In addition, it controls movements of the antennae and mouth parts and induces suitable behaviors by modifying the activity of the thoracic and abdominal nervous systems, which, likewise, provide sensory input and feedback to the brain. This chapter introduces the organization of the insect brain and then focuses on neural circuits underlying five aspects of insect behavior that are relatively well understood.

Keywords

Sensory systems Insect brain Motion vision Circadian clock Learning and memory Orientation Courtship 

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of NeuroethologySOKENDAI, The Graduate University for Advanced StudiesHayamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Animal PhysiologyUniversity of MarburgMarburgGermany

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