“Land Emergence” and “Elevation Shift” Affect Diversification: A New Perspective Toward Understanding the High Species Diversity of Terrestrial Animals in Japan

Chapter
Part of the Diversity and Commonality in Animals book series (DCA)

Abstract

Animal species in Japan are characterized by a high degree of endemism. Recent phylogeographic studies have revealed interesting and unexpected patterns of diversification in the islands adjacent to the main Japanese islands (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu) and the within-island diversification in the main islands. In this chapter, I propose two potential models to explain such diversification: ‘land emergence’ effects and ‘elevation shift’ effects, based on changes in animal distribution in response to climate or habitat alteration during the repeated glaciation and post-glaciation periods in the Pleistocene era. In the land emergence effect, population expansion and contraction in response to land emergence and disappearance contributed to the dynamic changes in morphological and genetic characters in the four main islands and their adjacent offshore islands. In the elevation shift effect, ‘cryptic barriers’ and ‘cryptic corridors’ were formed through elevation shifts in response to climatic changes in the past. The effect also contributed to the formation of diversification patterns among the low elevation species. For further understanding of diversification of Japanese animals, both land emergence and elevation shift effects should be evaluated for each species, with careful consideration of the ‘connectivity’ of animal dispersal.

Keywords

Zoogeography Glaciation period Land emergence effect Land bridge Elevation shift effect Cryptic barrier Cryptic corridor Connectivity Island syndrome 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the JSPS Core-to-Core Program B, Asia-Africa Scientific Platforms, Sumitomo Foundation, Heiwa Nakajima Foundation, and Kyoto University SPIRITS program. Dr. Yuchun Li of Shandong University provided various suggestions and discussion about the geomorphological effect on zoogeography in East Asia. I thank John L. Koprowski, Alex Hon-Tsen Yu, and Hitoshi Suzuki for valuable comments on the early versions of the manuscript, and Yuta Shintaku for help with preparing Figs. 1.4 and 1.7. The final manuscript was completed during the time when I was a visiting scholar of Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, and I deeply appreciate Prof. Suchinda Malaivijitnond.

References

  1. Abe H (1999) Diversity and conservation of mammals of Japan. In: Yokohata Y, Nakamura S (eds) Recent advances in the biology of Japanese Insectivora. Hiba Society of Natural History, Shobara, pp 89–104Google Scholar
  2. Adler GH, Levins R (1994) The island syndrome in rodent populations. Q Rev Biol 69:473–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Avise JC (2000) Phylogeography: the history and formation of species. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. Darlington PJ Jr (1957) Zoogeography: the geographic distribution of animals. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Dobson M (1994) Patterns of distribution in Japanese land mammals. Mamm Rev 24:91–111Google Scholar
  6. Dobson M, Kawamura Y (1998) Origin of the Japanese land mammal fauna: allocation of extant species to historically-based categories. Quat Res Tokyo 37:385–395Google Scholar
  7. Galbreath KE, Hafner DJ, Zamudio KR (2009) When cold is better: climate-driven elevation shifts yield complex patterns of diversification and demography in an alpine specialist (American pika, Ochotona princeps). Evolution 63:2848–2863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hikida T (2002) Natural history of the reptiles. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  9. Hikida T (2003) Biogeography of reptiles in islands in East Asia—geographic distributions from views of molecular and morphological studies. Seibutsu Kagaku 54:205–220Google Scholar
  10. Hikida T, Motokawa J (1999) Phylogeographical relationships of the skinks of the genus Eumeces (Reptilia: Scincidae) in East Asia. In: Ota H (ed) Tropical island herpetofauna: origin, current diversity, and conservation. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 231–247Google Scholar
  11. Hikida T, Ota H (1997) Biogeography of reptiles in the subtropical East Asian islands. In: Lue KY, Chen TH (eds) Proceedings of the symposium on the phylogeny, biogeography and conservation of fauna and flora of East Asian region. National Science Council, Taipei, pp 11–28Google Scholar
  12. Hikida T, Ota H, Toyama M (1992) Herpetofauna of an encounter zone of Oriental and Palearctic elements: amphibians and reptiles of the Tokara Group and adjacent islands in the northern Ryukyus, Japan. Biol Mag Okinawa 30:29–43Google Scholar
  13. Kageyama M, Motokawa M, Hikida T (2009) Geographic variation in morphological traits of the large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus (Rodentia, Muridae), from the Izu Island Group, Japan. Zool Sci 26:266–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kawamoto Y, Shotake T, Nozawa K, Kawamoto S, Tomari K, Kawai S, Shirai K, Morimitsu Y, Takagi N, Akaza H, Fujii H, Hagihara K, Aizawa K, Akachi S, Oi T, Hayaishi S (2007) Postglacial population expansion of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) inferred from mitochondrial DNA phylogeography. Primates 48:27–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kawamura Y (2007) Last glacial and Holocene land mammals of the Japanese Islands: their fauna, extinction and immigration. Quat Res (Tokyo) 46:171–177Google Scholar
  16. Kawamura Y, Nakagawa R (2012) Terrestrial mammal faunas in the Japanese Islands during OIS 3 and OIS 2. In: Ono A, Izuho M (eds) Environmental changes and human occupation in East Asia during OIS 3 and OIS 2. Archaopress, Oxford, pp 33–54Google Scholar
  17. Kimura M (1996) Quaternary paleogeography of the Ryukyu Arc. J Geogr 105:259–285 [in Japanese with English abstract]Google Scholar
  18. Kizaki K, Oshiro I (1977) Paleogeography of the Ryukyu Islands. Mar Sci Mon 9:542–549 [in Japanese with English abstract]Google Scholar
  19. Kizaki K, Oshiro I (1980) The origin of the Ryukyu Islands. In: Kizaki K (ed) Natural history of the Ryukyus. Tsukiji Shokan, Tokyo, pp 8–37 [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  20. Kobayashi T (1981) On the reliable using of scientific names of the Japanese field mice, Apodemus. Honyurui Kagaku (Mamm Sci) 42:27–33 [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  21. Kuroda N (1931) Evaluation of the Watase’s line from the view point of vertebrate distribution. Zool Mag (Tokyo) 43:172–175 [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  22. Lomolino MV (2005) Body size evolution in insular vertebrates: generality of the island rule. J Biogeogr 32:1683–1699Google Scholar
  23. Lomolino MV, Sax DF, Palombo MR, van der Geer AA (2012) Of mice and mammoths: evaluations of crucial explanations for body size evolution in insular mammals. J Biogeogr 39:842–854Google Scholar
  24. Lomolino MV, van der Geer AA, Liras GA, Palombo MR, Sax DF, Rossi R (2013) Of mice and mammoths: generality and antiquity of the island rule. J Biogeogr 40:1427–1439Google Scholar
  25. Meiri S, Cooper N, Purvis A (2008) The island rule: made to be broken? Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 275:141–148Google Scholar
  26. Millien-Parra V, Jaeger JJ (1999) Island biogeography of the Japanese terrestrial mammal assemblages: an example of a relict fauna. J Biogeogr 26:959–972Google Scholar
  27. Motokawa M (2000) Biogeography of living mammals in the Ryukyu Islands. Tropics 10:63–71Google Scholar
  28. Motokawa M (2008) Small mammals of Japan, from the viewpoint of zoogeography. In: Motokawa M (ed) Mammalogy in Japan 1, small-sized mammals. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 1–29 [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  29. Motokawa M (2009) Distribution patterns and zoogeography of Japanese mammals. In: Ohdachi SD, Ishibashi Y, Iwasa MA, Saitoh T (eds) The wild mammals of Japan. Shoukadoh Book Sellers, Kyoto, pp 44–46Google Scholar
  30. Motokawa M (2014) “Island rule” as viewed from small mammals of Japan: discussion and prospect with emphasis on the Japanese large field mouse. Seibutsu Kagaku 66:4–14 [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  31. Motokawa M (2015) Distribution patterns and zoogeography of Japanese mammals. In: Ohdachi SD, Ishibashi Y, Iwasa MA, Fukui D, Saitoh T (eds) The wild mammals of Japan. Shoukadoh Book Sellers, Kyoto, pp 44–46Google Scholar
  32. Motokawa M, Lin LK, Harada M, Hattori S (2003) Morphometric geographic variation in the Asian lesser white-toothed shrew Crocidura shantungensis (Mammalia, Insectivora) in East Asia. Zool Sci 20:789–795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ohshima K (1990) The history of straits around the Japanese Islands in the late-Quaternary. Quat Res (Tokyo) 29:193–208 [in Japanese with English abstract]Google Scholar
  34. Ohshima K (1991) The late-Quaternary sea-level change of the Japanese Islands. J Geogr 100:967–975 [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  35. Ono Y (1991) Glacial and periglacial paleoenvironments in the Japanese Islands. Quat Res (Tokyo) 30:203–211Google Scholar
  36. Oshida T, Masuda R, Ikeda K (2009) Phylogeography of the Japanese giant flying squirrel, Petaurista leucogenys (Rodentia: Sciuridae): implication of glacial refugia in an arboreal small mammal in the Japanese Islands. Biol J Linn Soc 98:47–60Google Scholar
  37. Oshida T, Lin LK, Chang SW, Chen YJ, Lin JK (2011) Phylogeography of two sympatric giant flying squirrel subspecies, Petaurista alborufus lena and P. philippensis grandis (Rodentia: Sciuridae), in Taiwan. Biol J Linn Soc 102:404–419Google Scholar
  38. Osozawa S, Shinjo R, Armid A, Watanabe Y, Horiguchi T, Wakabayashi J (2012) Paleogeographic reconstruction of the 1.55 Ma synchronous isolation of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, and Taiwan and inflow of the Kuroshio warm current. Int Geol Rev 54:1369–1388Google Scholar
  39. Osozawa S, Su ZH, Oba Y, Yagi T, Watanabe Y, Wakabayashi J (2013) Vicariant speciation due to 1.55 Ma isolation of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, based on geological and GenBank data. Entomol Sci 16:267–277Google Scholar
  40. Osozawa S, Takahashi M, Wakabayashi J (2015) Ryukyu endemic Mycalesis butterflies, speciated vicariantly due to isolation of the islands since 1.55 Ma. Lepidoptera Sci 66:8–14Google Scholar
  41. Ota H (1998) Geographic patterns of endemism and speciation in amphibians and reptiles of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, with special reference to their paleogeographical implications. Res Popul Ecol 40:189–204Google Scholar
  42. Ota H (2000) The current geographic faunal pattern of reptiles and amphibians of the Ryukyu Archipelago and adjacent regions. Tropics 10:51–62Google Scholar
  43. Ota H, Sakaguchi N, Ikehara S, Hikida T (1993) The herpetofauna of the Senkaku Group, Ryukyu Archipelago. Pac Sci 47:248–255Google Scholar
  44. Ota Y, Koike K, Chinzei K, Nogami M, Machida H, Matsuda T (2010) Geomorphology of the Japanese islands. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  45. Sato JJ (2016) A review of the processes of mammalian faunal assembly in Japan: insights from molecular phylogenetics. In: Motokawa M, Kajihara H (eds) Species diversity of animals in Japan. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 49–116Google Scholar
  46. Shintaku Y, Motokawa M (2016) Geographic variation in skull morphology of the large Japanese field mice, Apodemus speciosus (Rodentia: Muridae) revealed by geometric morphometric analysis. Zool Sci 32:132–145Google Scholar
  47. Shintaku Y, Kageyama M, Motokawa M (2012) Morphological variation in external traits of the large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Mamm Stud 37:113–126Google Scholar
  48. Suzuki H, Yasuda SP, Sakaizumi M, Wakana S, Motokawa M, Tsuchiya K (2004) Differential geographic patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation in two sympatric species of Japanese wood mice, Apodemus speciosus and A. argenteus. Genes Genet Syst 79:165–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Tojo K, Sekiné K, Suzuki T, Saito R, Takenaka M (2016) The species and genetic diversities of insects in Japan, with special reference to the aquatic insects. In: Motokawa M, Kajihara H (eds) Species diversity of animals in Japan. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 229–247Google Scholar
  50. Tokuda M (1941a) Nippon seibutsu chiri [Biogeography of Japan]. Kokon Shoin, Tokyo [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  51. Tokuda M (1941b) A revised monograph of the Japanese and Manchou–Korean Muridae. Biogeographica 4:1–155Google Scholar
  52. Tomozawa M, Suzuki H (2008) A trend of central versus peripheral structuring in mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences of the Japanese wood mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Zool Sci 25:273–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Tsuchiya K (1974) Cytological and biochemical studies of Apodemus speciosus group in Japan. J Mamm Soc Jpn 6:67–87 [in Japanese with English abstract]Google Scholar
  54. Tsuchiya K, Moriwaki K, Yosida TH (1973) Cytological survey in wild population of Japanese wood mouse, Apodemus speciosus and its breeding. Exp Anim 22(Suppl):221–229Google Scholar
  55. Whittaker RJ (1998) Island biogeography: ecology, evolution, and conservation. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  56. Yuan SL, Lin LK, Oshida T (2006) Phylogeography of the mole-shrew (Anourosorex yamashinai) in Taiwan: implications of interglacial refugia in a high-elevation small mammal. Mol Ecol 15:2119–2130PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Kyoto University MuseumKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations