Advertisement

Scoring Systems to Predict Coronary Artery Lesions and Nonresponse to Initial Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy

  • Tohru KobayashiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Several scoring systems have been developed to predict formation of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease. The initial objective of such scoring systems was to identify indications for cardiac catheterization and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. Currently, the objective is to predict response to initial intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. In Japan, three scoring system have been developed and are being used clinically.

Keywords

Risk score Coronary artery lesion IVIG non-response 

References

  1. 1.
    Asai T. Evaluation method for the degree of seriousness in Kawasaki disease. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1983;25(2):170–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-200X.1983.tb01683.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Furusho K, Kamiya T, Nakano H, Kiyosawa N, Shinomiya K, Hayashidera T, et al. High-dose intravenous gammaglobulin for Kawasaki disease. Lancet. 1984;2(8411):1055–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(84)91504-6 PMID:6209513.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Burns JC, Beiser AS, Chung KJ, Duffy CE, et al. The treatment of Kawasaki syndrome with intravenous gamma globulin. N Engl J Med. 1986;315(6):341–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198608073150601 PMID:2426590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nakano H, Ueda K, Saito A, Tsuchitani Y, Kawamori J, Miyake T, et al. Scoring method for identifying patients with Kawasaki disease at high risk of coronary artery aneurysms. Am J Cardiol. 1986;58(9):739–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(86)90348-6 PMID:3766414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Iwasa M, Sugiyama K, Ando T, Nomura H, Katoh T, Wada Y. Selection of high-risk children for immunoglobulin therapy in Kawasaki disease. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1987;250:543–4. PMID:34230686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harada K. Intravenous gamma-globulin treatment in Kawasaki disease. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1991;33(6):805–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-200X.1991.tb02612.x PMID:1801561.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beiser AS, Takahashi M, Baker AL, Sundel RP, Newburger JW. Predictive instrument for coronary artery aneurysms in Kawasaki disease. US Multicenter Kawasaki Disease Study Group. Am J Cardiol. 1998;81(9):1116–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Gerber MA, Gewitz MH, Tani LY, Burns JC, et al. Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; American Heart Association; American Academy of Pediatrics. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a statement for health professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Circulation. 2004;110(17):2747–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000145143.19711.78 PMID:15505111.
  9. 9.
    Fukunishi M, Kikkawa M, Hamana K, Onodera T, Matsuzaki K, Matsumoto Y, et al. Prediction of non-responsiveness to intravenous high-dose gamma-globulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease at onset. J Pediatr. 2000;137(2):172–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mpd.2000.104815 PMID:10931407.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kobayashi T, Inoue Y, Takeuchi K, Okada Y, Tamura K, Tomomasa T, et al. Prediction of intravenous immunoglobulin unresponsiveness in patients with Kawasaki disease. Circulation. 2006;113(22):2606–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.592865 PMID: 16735679.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Seki M, Kobayashi T, Kobayashi T, Morikawa A, Otani T, Takeuchi K, et al. External validation of a risk score to predict intravenous immunoglobulin resistance in patients with kawasaki disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(2):145–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3181f386db PMID:20802375.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Egami K, Muta H, Ishii M, Suda K, Sugahara Y, Iemura M, et al. Prediction of resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in patients with Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2006;149(2):237–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.03.050 PMID:16887442.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sano T, Kurotobi S, Matsuzaki K, Yamamoto T, Maki I, Miki K, et al. Prediction of non-responsiveness to standard high-dose gamma-globulin therapy in patients with acute Kawasaki disease before starting initial treatment. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166(2):131–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-006-0223-z PMID:16896641.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kobayashi T, Saji T, Otani T, Takeuchi K, Nakamura T, Arakawa H, et al. RAISE study group investigators. Efficacy of immunoglobulin plus prednisolone for prevention of coronary artery abnormalities in severe Kawasaki disease (RAISE study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial. Lancet. 2012;379(9826):1613–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61930-2 PMID:22405251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ogata S, Ogihara Y, Honda T, Kon S, Akiyama K, Ishii M. Corticosteroid pulse combination therapy for refractory Kawasaki disease: a randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2012;129(1):e17–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-0148 PMID:22144699.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Okada K, Hara J, Maki I, Miki K, Matsuzaki K, Matsuoka T, et al. Osaka Kawasaki Disease Study Group. Pulse methylprednisolone with gammaglobulin as an initial treatment for acute Kawasaki disease. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168(2):181–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-008-0727-9 PMID:18446365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tremoulet AH, Best BM, Song S, Wang S, Corinaldesi E, Eichenfield JR, et al. Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin in children with Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2008;153(1):117–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.12.021 PMID:18571548.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sleeper LA, Minich LL, McCrindle BM, et al. Evaluation of Kawasaki disease risk-scoring systems for intravenous immunoglobulin resistance. J Pediatr. 2011;158:831–5 e3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.10.031.
  19. 19.
    Fu PP, Du ZD, Pan YS. Novel predictors of intravenous immunoglobulin resistance in Chinese children with Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(8):e319–23. PMID:23446442.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Clinical Research Planning, Department of Development Strategy, Center for Clinical Research and DevelopmentNational Center for Child Health and DevelopmentTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations