Inflammatory bowel disease is an emerging problem in India with a relatively high prevalence rate, especially in the northern parts of the country. In line with other Asian data, ulcerative colitis is far more prevalent than Crohn’s disease in India. Endoscopy services in India are still restricted to metropolitan areas and larger cities, with very limited availability in the smaller cities. Availability of colonoscopy has been one of the major factors responsible for the paradigm shift in the recognition of IBD and its differentiation from intestinal tuberculosis in India. Therapeutic endoscopy as a non-surgical treatment modality for IBD is restricted to a few centers in the country. Colorectal carcinoma occurs at a much lower rate in patients with or without IBD possibly due to the low consumption of red meat in India. For this reason, guidelines for surveillance colonoscopy in patients with ulcerative colitis are not practiced routinely in most centers. Procedures such as chromoendoscopy and endoscopic submucosal dissection are still in their infancy in India. With greater numbers of IBD patients expected in the future, there is a dire need to improve the existing status of endoscopic and colonoscopic services in the country.
Khosla SN, Girdhar NK, Lal S, Mishra DS. Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in hospital and select general population of northern India. J Assoc Phys India. 1986;34:405–7.Google Scholar
Probert CS, Jayanthi V, Pinder D, Wicks AC, Mayberry JF. Epidemiological studies of ulcerative proctocolitis in Indian migrants and the indigenous population of Leicestershire. Gut. 1992;33:687–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Makhariya GK, Ramakrishna BS, Abraham P, et al. Indian Society of Gastroenterology task force on inflammatory bowel disease. Survey of inflammatory bowel diseases in India. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2012;31:299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramakrishna BS, Makhariya GK, Abraham P, et al. Indian Society of Gastroenterology Task force on inflammatory bowel disease. Indian Society of Gastroenterology consensus on ulcerative colitis. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2012;31:307–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Pullimood AB, Ramakrishna BS, Kurian G, et al. Endoscopic mucosal biopsies are useful to distinguish granulomatous colitis due to Crohn’s disease from tuberculosis. Gut. 1999;45:537–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Puri AS, Sachdeva S, Mittal VV, et al. Endoscopic diagnosis, management and outcome of gastroduodenal tuberculosis. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2012;31(3):125–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar