Advertisement

Endoscopic Indices for Crohn’s Disease

  • Makoto NaganumaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Achieving endoscopic remission has become one of the treatment goals in Crohn’s disease (CD) because recent studies have indicated that mucosal healing is associated with better CD outcomes after the initiation of medical treatment. Scoring the endoscopic disease severity is important, because endoscopy can objectively assess the severity of the disease. Crohn’s disease index of severity (CDEIS), the simple endoscopic score for Crohn’s disease (SES-CD), and the Rutgeerts postoperative endoscopic index are frequently used to assess endoscopic disease activity in CD. Changes in endoscopic scores are associated with clinical responses to medical treatments. CDEIS and SES-CD are clinically difficult to score. Although novel technologies to enable the diagnosis of small intestinal lesions have been developed, there have been few scoring systems to assess the severity of small intestinal lesions. The development of a simple score for both small and large intestinal lesions of CD is warranted.

Keywords

Crohn’s disease index of severity Simple endoscopic score for Crohn’s disease Mucosal healing 

References

  1. 1.
    Naganuma M, Hosoe N, Ogata H. Inflammatory bowel disease and novel endoscopic technologies. Dig Endosc Suppl. 2014;1:20–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Naganuma M, Hisamatsu T, Kanai T, et al. Magnetic resonance enterography of Crohn’s disease. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;3:1–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Froslie KF, Jahnsen J, Moum BA, et al. Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease: results from a Norwegian population-based cohort. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:412–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Neurath MF, Travis SPL. Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel diseases: a systematic review. Gut. 2012;61:1619–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Walsh A, Palmer R, Travis S. Mucosal healing as a target of therapy for colonic inflammatory bowel disease and methods to score disease activity. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2014;24:367–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mary JY, Modigliani R. Development and validation of an endoscopic index of the severity for Crohn’s disease: a prospective multicentre study. Groupe d’Etudes Therapeutiques des affections Inflammatoires du Tube Digestif (GETAID). Gut. 1989;130:983–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mary JY, Lemann M, Colombel J-F, et al. Endoscopic remission and response in Crohn’s disease: an objective definition using the CDEIS. Gut. 2006;37(Suppl 1):A55.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hébuterne X, Lémann M, Bouhnik Y, et al. Endoscopic improvement of mucosal lesions in patients with moderate to severe ileocolonic Crohn’s disease following treatment with certolizumab pegol. Gut. 2013;62:201–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Daperno M, D’Haens G, Van Assche G, et al. Development and validation of a new, simplified endoscopic activity score for Crohn’s disease: the SES-CD. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;60:505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rutgeerts P, Geboes K, Vantrappen G, et al. Predictability of the postoperative course of Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology. 1990;99:956–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gralnek IM, Defranchis R, Seidman E, et al. Development of a capsule endoscopy scoring index for small bowel mucosal inflammatory change. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008;27:146–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gal E, Geller A, Fraser G, et al. Assessment and validation of the new capsule endoscopy Crohn’s disease activity index (CECDAI). Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:1933–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Takenaka K, Ohtsuka K, Kitazume Y, et al. Comparison of magnetic resonance and balloon enteroscopic examination of deep small intestine in patients with Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology. 2014;47:334–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Diagnostic and Therapeutic EndoscopySchool of Medicine, Keio UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations