Towards Long-Lasting Disaster Mitigation Following a Mega-landslide: High-Definition Topographic Measurements of Sediment Production by Debris Flows in a Steep Headwater Channel

  • Yuichi S. Hayakawa
  • Fumitoshi Imaizumi
  • Norifumi Hotta
  • Haruka Tsunetaka
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences book series (AGES)

Abstract

Mega-landslides usually cause long-lasting subsequent sediment production, and long-term strategies for disaster mitigation are necessary in the case of such extreme events. The Ohya-kuzure landslide in central Japan is typical of sites where hillslope erosion and sediment yield have been continuously active since its formation in 1707. Sediment production is particularly active by debris flows in the headwater channels formed within the landslide. However, the dynamics of such debris flows in steep headwater channels have not been fully examined compared to those in gentler downstream reaches. To investigate the changes in headwater channel bed sediments remobilized mainly by frequent debris flows, repeated high-resolution measurements were carried out using terrestrial laser scanning. Freeze-thaw weathering in the surrounding slopes, which are composed of deformed shale and sandstone layers, delivers quantities of small particles onto the valley floor. Measurements in spring, summer, and autumn conducted over two years provided high-definition (0.1 m resolution) topographic datasets, revealing the seasonal amount of erosion and deposition to be on the order of 1000–5000 m3. Erosion and deposition along the reach also showed contrasting spatial patterns according to the sections bounded by knickpoints and valley narrows. These basic estimates of sediment production in headwater channels can be utilized for further mitigation of possible sediment-related disasters in downstream areas.

Keywords

Debris flow Steep terrain Terrestrial laser scanning Sediment disaster High-definition topography Landslide 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Our research is funded by the Resarch Grant by Sabo & Landslide Technical Center, and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26292077 and 25702014. This study is a part of CSIS Joint Research #413. We thank S. Ishikawa, N. Yumen, H. Mori, H. Yoshida, and students from Shizuoka University for their assistance in the field survey.

References

  1. Higuchi S, Tsuchiya S, Ohsaka O (2012) Large sediment movement caused by the catastrophic Ohya-Kuzure landslide. Chubu Forest Res 60:105–108 [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  2. Hughes MW, Hughes MW, Quigley MC, van Ballegooy S et al (2014) The sinking city: earthquakes increase flood hazard in Christchurch, New Zealand. GSA Today 25(3):4–10. doi: 10.1130/GSATG221A.1 Google Scholar
  3. Imaizumi F, Tsuchiya S, Ohsaka O (2005) Behaviour of debris flows located in a mountainous torrent on the Ohya landslide, Japan. Can Geotech J 42:919–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Imaizumi F, Sidle RC, Tsuchiya S et al (2006) Hydrogeomorphic processes in a steep debris flow initiation zone. Geophys Res Lett 33:L10404. doi: 10.1029/2006GL026250 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Imaizumi F, Tsuchiya S, Ohsaka O, Ito H (2013) Surface runoff and fludification of grains on sediment surface of sands and gravels. Proc Jpn Soc Erosion Control Eng Annu Meet 2013: Pb–08 [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  6. Imaizumi F, Hayakawa YS, Hotta N et al (2015) Interactions between accumulation conditions of sediment storage and debris flow characteristics in a debris-flow Initiation zone in Ohya landslide, Japan. Geophys Res Abstr 17:EGU2015–EGU7757Google Scholar
  7. Imaizumi F, Trappmann D, Matsuoka N et al (in press) Biographical sketch of a giant: deciphering recent debris-flow dynamics from the Ohya landslide body (Japanese Alps). GeomorphologyGoogle Scholar
  8. Ishikawa Y (2011) Reevaluation of magnitude of Hoei earthquake in 1707 (in Japanese). Abstracts of the seismology society of Japan 2011 Fall Meeting D11–09. [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  9. Ito S, Ogawa Y, Sekiya Y et al (1999) On the sediment budget and bed variation of the Abe River. Proc Hydraul Eng 43:719–724. doi: 10.2208/prohe.43.719 [in Japanese with English abstract]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Keefer DK (1999) Earthquake-induced landslides and their effects on alluvial fans. J Sediment Res 69:84–104. doi: 10.2110/jsr.69.84 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kondo R, Hashinoki T, Yasuda Y et al (2008) Observation of total load upstream of the Abe River. Sabo Gakkaishi 60(5):15–22. doi: 10.11475/sabo1973.60.5_15 Google Scholar
  12. Korup O (2012) Earth’s portfolio of extreme sediment transport events. Earth Sci Rev 112:115–125. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2012.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Korup O, McSaveney MJ, Davies TRH (2004) Sediment generation and delivery from large historic landslides in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Geomorphology 61:189–207. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Korup O, Clague JJ, Hermanns RL et al (2007) Giant landslides, topography, and erosion. Earth Planet Sci Lett 261:578–589. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.07.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ministry of Construction (1988) History of sabo erosion controls in Abe-kawa River [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  16. Nishikawa T, Takahashi M, Kato Y et al (2006) Current status of suspended sediment measurements in the Abe-Kawa River. Proc Jpn Soc Erosion Control Eng. [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  17. Rowlands KA, Jones LD, Whitworth M (2003) Landslide laser scanning: a new look at an old problem. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 36:155–157. doi: 10.1144/1470-9236/2003-08 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sugiyama Y, AIST (2010) Geological map of Japan 1:200,000 Shizuoka and Omae-zaki, 2nd edn. Geological Survey of Japan, AIST [in Japanese with English abstract]Google Scholar
  19. Teza G, Galgaro A, Zaltron N et al (2007) Terrestrial laser scanner to detect landslide displacement fields: a new approach. Int J Remote Sens 28:3425–3446. doi: 10.1080/01431160601024234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Trustrum NA, Gomez B, Page MJ et al (1999) Sediment production and output: The relative role of large magnitude events in steepland catchments. Z Geomorphol Supplbd 115:71–86Google Scholar
  21. Tsuchiya S, Imaizumi F (2010) Large sediment movement caused by the catastrophic Ohya-Kuzure landslide. J Dis Res 5:257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Uda T, Suzuki T, Oishi M et al (1994) Evaluation of volume and spatial shape of beach sand along Shizuoka Coast. Proc Coast Eng Soc Jpn 41:536–540. doi: 10.2208/proce1989.41.536 [in Japanese]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuichi S. Hayakawa
    • 1
  • Fumitoshi Imaizumi
    • 2
  • Norifumi Hotta
    • 3
  • Haruka Tsunetaka
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Spatial Information ScienceThe University of TokyoKashiwaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of AgricultureShizuoka UniversityShizuokaJapan
  3. 3.Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations