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Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

  • Yuta Manabe
  • Kenji Kosaka
Chapter

Abstract

Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are observed in all forms of dementia. We discuss representative forms of BPSD such as hallucination and delusion, depression, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) observed in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The most representative BPSD for DLB is visual hallucination. McKeith et al. reported that 80 % of DLB cases involved visual hallucination. Delusions occur more frequently in DLB, compared with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These in the patients with DLB are characterized by delusional misidentification either as a continuation of visual hallucinations or related to delusions resulting from visual misidentification of places, people, or surroundings. Depression is one of the first symptoms of DLB and is listed in the CDLB guidelines as one of the supportive features. One suggestive sign of DLB is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which is significantly more common in the patients with DLB than other forms of neurodegenerative dementia. RBD also occurs earlier than cognitive dysfunction and primary core symptoms such as parkinsonism and visual hallucination.

Keywords

Visual hallucination Delusional misidentification Depression Rapid eye movement Sleep behavior disorder 

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dementia Diagnostic CenterYokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgery HospitalYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of General Internal Medicine and Emergency MedicineFujita Health University School of medicineToyoakeJapan
  3. 3.Clinic Ian Center MinamiYokohamaJapan
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryYokohama City University School of MedicineYokohamaJapan

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