Advertisement

Contexts of Co-creation: Designing with System Stakeholders

  • Peter JonesEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Translational Systems Sciences book series (TSS, volume 8)

Abstract

The concept of co-creation includes a wide range of participatory practices for design and decision making with stakeholders and users. Generally co-creation refers to a style of design or business practice characterized by facilitated participation in orchestrated multi-stakeholder engagements, such as structured workshops and self-organizing modes of engagement. Co-creation envelopes a wide range of skilled social practices that can considerably inform and enhance the effectiveness of organizational development, collaboration, and positive group outcomes. New modes of co-creation have emerged, evolving from legacy forms of engagement such as participatory design and charrettes and newer forms such as collaboratories, generative design, sprints, and labs. Often sessions are structured by methods that recommend common steps or stages, as in design thinking workshops, and some are explicitly undirected and open. While practices abound, we find almost no research theorizing the effectiveness of these models compared to conventional structures of facilitation. As co-creation approaches have become central to systemic design, service design, and participatory design practices, a practice theory from which models might be selected and modified would offer value to practitioners and the literature. The framework that follows was evolved from and assessed by a practice theory of dialogic design. It is intended to guide the development of principles-based guidelines for co-creation practice, which might methodologically bridge the wide epistemological variances that remain unacknowledged in stakeholder co-creation practice.

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to Alexander Christakis and Thomas Flanagan for their reviews, challenging questions, and commentaries that informed and contributed to this article. As with any project larger than a single paper, the ideas in this study will continue in practice and in future discourse. I also express my appreciation for insights contributed in exchanges with Kevin Dye, Jeff Diedrich, and Kirk Weigand.

References

  1. Aguirre, M., Agudelo, N., & Romm, J. (2017). Design facilitation as emerging practice: Analyzing how designers support multi-stakeholder co-creation. She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation, 3(3), 198–209.Google Scholar
  2. Ashby, W. R. (1958). Requisite variety and its implications for the control of complex systems. Cybernetica, 1, 83–89.Google Scholar
  3. Banfield, R., Lombardo, C. T., & Wax, T. (2015). Design sprint: A practical guidebook for building great digital products. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media.Google Scholar
  4. Basadur, M., Basadur, T., & Licina, G. (2012). Organizational development. In M. D. Mumford (Ed.), Handbook of organizational creativity (pp. 667–703). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Basadur, M., Basadur, T., & Licina, G. (2013). Simplexity thinking. In Encyclopedia of creativity, invention, innovation and entrepreneurship (pp. 1617–1634). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Bausch, K. C., & Flanagan, T. R. (2013). A confluence of third-phase science and dialogic design science. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 30(4), 414–429.Google Scholar
  7. Bjerknes, G., Ehn, P., Kyng, M., & Nygaard, K. (1987). Computers and democracy: A Scandinavian challenge. Aldershot, UK: Gower Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  8. Boulding, K. (1966). The impact of social sciences. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, T., & Katz, B. (2011). Change by design. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(3), 381–383.Google Scholar
  10. Buxton, B. (2008). The long nose of innovation. Businessweek Insight, 11, 27.Google Scholar
  11. Carmel, E., Whitaker, R. D., & George, J. F. (1993). PD and joint application design: A transatlantic comparison. Communications of the ACM, 36(6), 40–48.Google Scholar
  12. Christakis, A. N., & Bausch, K. C. (2006). How people harness their collective wisdom and power to construct the future in co-laboratories of democracy. Greenwich, CN: Information Age Press.Google Scholar
  13. Christakis, A. N., & Dye, K. (2008). The Cogniscope:™ Lessons learned in the arena. In P. Jenlink (Ed.), Dialogue as a collective means of design conversation (pp. 187–203). Boston, MA: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Christakis, A. N., & Flanagan, T. R. (2011). Referential transparency for dialogic design science. Technical Report. Institute for 21st Century Agoras.Google Scholar
  15. Churchman, C. W. (1971). The design of inquiring systems: Basic concepts of systems and organization. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. Collopy, F. (2009). Lessons learned – Why the failure of systems thinking should inform the future of design thinking. Fast Company, June 7, 2009. Retrieved from www.fastcompany.com/1291598/ lessons-learned-whyfailure- systems-thinking-should-inform-future-design-thinking
  17. Conklin, J. (2006). Dialogue mapping. Building shared understanding of wicked problems. West Sussex, UK: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  18. Cooperrider, D. L., & Srivastva, S. (1987). Appreciative inquiry in organizational life. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 1(1), 129–169.Google Scholar
  19. Cooperrider, D., Whitney, D. D., & Stavros, J. M. (2008). The Appreciative Inquiry handbook: For leaders of change. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Emery, M., & Purser, R. E. (1996). The search conference: A powerful method for planning organizational change and community action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Espinosa, A., & Harnden, R. (2007). Team Syntegrity and democratic group decision making: Theory and practice. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 58(8), 1056–1064.Google Scholar
  22. Frankfurt, H. G. (1958). Peirce’s notion of abduction. The Journal of Philosophy, 55(14), 593–597.Google Scholar
  23. Frow, P., Nenonen, S., Payne, A., & Storbacka, K. (2015). Managing co-creation design: A strategic approach to innovation. British Journal of Management, 26(3), 463–483.Google Scholar
  24. Galvagno, M., & Dalli, D. (2014). Theory of value co-creation: A systematic literature review. Managing Service Quality, 24(6), 643–683.Google Scholar
  25. Ind, N., & Coates, N. (2013). The meanings of co-creation. European Business Review, 25(1), 86–95.Google Scholar
  26. Irwin, T. (2015). Transition design: A proposal for a new area of design practice, study, and research. Design and Culture, 7(2), 229–246.Google Scholar
  27. Isaacs, W. N. (1993). Taking flight: Dialogue, collective thinking, and organizational learning. Organizational Dynamics, 22(2), 24–39.Google Scholar
  28. Jones, P. H. (1998). Team design: A practitioner’s guide to collaborative innovation. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  29. Jones, P. H. (2009). Learning the lessons of systems thinking: Exploring the gap between thinking and leadership. Integral Leadership Review, IX(4), 1–8.Google Scholar
  30. Jones, P. H. (2014). Systemic design principles for complex social systems. In G. Metcalfe (Ed.), Social systems and design (pp. 91–128). Tokyo: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Jones, P. H. (2015). Design research methods for systemic design: Perspectives from design education and practice. In Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the ISSS. Berlin.Google Scholar
  32. Jones, P. H. (2017). Assembling requisite stakeholder variety in foresight practice. In Proceedings of Anticipation 2017. November 8–10, 2018, London, UK.Google Scholar
  33. Jungk, R., & Müllert, N. (1987). Future workshops: How to create desirable futures. London: Institute for Social Inventions.Google Scholar
  34. Kakoulaki, M., & Christakis, A. N. (2018). Demoscopio: The demosensual [R]evolutionary Eutopia. In J. McIntyre-Mills, N. Romm & Y. Corcoran-Nantes (Eds.), Balancing individualism and collectivism (pp. 429–460). Contemporary Systems Thinking. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Krippendorff, K. (2000). Propositions of human-centeredness; A philosophy for design. In D. Durling & K. Friedman (Eds.), Doctoral education in design: Foundations for the future. July 8–12, 2000, La Clusaz, France (pp. 55–63). Staffordshire, UK: Staffordshire University Press. Retrieved from: repository.upenn.edu/asc_papers/210
  36. Kunz, W., & Rittel, H. W. (1970). Issues as elements of information systems (Vol. 131). Berkeley, CA: Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California.Google Scholar
  37. Lasswell, H. D. (1959). Strategies of inquiry: The rational use of observation. In D. Lerner (Ed.), The human meaning of the social sciences (pp. 89–113). New York: Meridian Books.Google Scholar
  38. Latour, B. (2013). An inquiry into modes of existence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Leonard, A. (1996). Team Syntegrity: A new methodology for group work. European Management Journal, 14(4), 407–441.Google Scholar
  40. Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory and social science. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  41. Midgley, G., Cavana, R. Y., Brocklesby, J., Foote, J. L., Wood, D. R., & Ahuriri-Driscoll, A. (2013). Towards a new framework for evaluating systemic problem structuring methods. European Journal of Operational Research, 229(1), 143–154.Google Scholar
  42. Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81.Google Scholar
  43. Mingers, J., & Rosenhead, J. (2004). Problem structuring methods in action. European Journal of Operational Research, 152(3), 530–554.Google Scholar
  44. Mintzberg, H. (1985). The organization as political arena. Journal of Management Studies, 22(2), 133–154.Google Scholar
  45. Muller, M. J. (2003). Participatory design: The third space in HCI. In A. Sears & L. A. Jacko (Eds.), Human-computer interaction: Development process (Vol. 4235, pp. 165–185). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  46. Nadler, G. (1981). Planning and design approach. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  47. Nelson, H. G., & Stolterman, E. (2012). The design way: Intentional change in an unpredictable world. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  48. Osborn, A. F. (1963). Applied imagination: Principles and procedures of creative problem-solving. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
  49. Owen, H. (1987). Spirit: Transformation and development in organizations. Potomac, MD: Abbott Publishing.Google Scholar
  50. Özbekhan, H. (1969). Toward a general theory of planning. Management and Behavioral Science Center Technical Report. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  51. Patton, M. Q. (2010). Developmental evaluation: Applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  52. Pourdehnad, J., Wilson, D., & Wexler, E. (2011, September). Systems & design thinking: A conceptual framework for their integration. In Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the ISSS. Hull, UK (Vol. 55, No. 1).Google Scholar
  53. Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004a). Co-creating unique value with customers. Strategy & leadership, 32(3), 4–9.Google Scholar
  54. Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004b). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5–14.Google Scholar
  55. Renn, O. (1993). The social arena concept of risk debates. In S. Krimsky (Ed.), Social theories of risk (pp. 179–196). Westport, CN: Praeger.Google Scholar
  56. Robertson, T., & Simonsen, J. (2012). Participatory design. In Routledge international handbook of participatory design (pp. 1–18). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Sanders, E. B. N., & Stappers, P. J. (2008). Co-creation and the new landscapes of design. Co-design, 4(1), 5–18.Google Scholar
  58. Sanders, E. B. N., & Stappers, P. J. (2012). Convivial design toolbox: Generative research for the front end of design. Amsterdam: BIS Publishers.Google Scholar
  59. Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and science of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.Google Scholar
  60. Tsivacou, I. (2005). The ideal of autonomy from the viewpoint of functional differentiation/integration of society. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 22(6), 509–524.Google Scholar
  61. VanPatter, G. K., & Pastor, E. (2016). Innovation methods mapping. New York: Humantific Publishing.Google Scholar
  62. Vargo, S. L., Maglio, P. P., & Akaka, M. A. (2008). On value and value co-creation: A service systems and service logic perspective. European Management Journal, 26(3), 145–152.Google Scholar
  63. Von Foerster, H. (2003). Cybernetics of cybernetics. In H. von Foerster (Ed.), Understanding: Understanding (pp. 283–286). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  64. Voorberg, W. H., Bekkers, V. J., & Tummers, L. G. (2015). A systematic review of co-creation and co-production: Embarking on the social innovation journey. Public Management Review, 17(9), 1333–1357.Google Scholar
  65. Warfield, J. N. (1986). The domain of science model: Evolution and design. In Proceedings of 30th Meeting Society for General Systems Research. Salinas: Intersystems, H46–H59.Google Scholar
  66. Warfield, J. N. (1994). Science of generic design: Managing complexity through systems design. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press.Google Scholar
  67. Warfield, J. N. (1999). Twenty laws of complexity: Science applicable in organizations. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 16(1), 3.Google Scholar
  68. Warfield, J. N. (2007). Systems science serves enterprise integration: A tutorial. Enterprise Information Systems, 1(2), 235–254.Google Scholar
  69. Warfield, J. N., & Cárdenas, A. R. (1994). A handbook of Interactive Management. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Weigand, K., Flanagan, T. R., Dye, K. M. C., & Jones, P. (2014). Collaborative foresight: Complementing long-horizon strategic planning. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 85, 134–152.Google Scholar
  71. Weisbord, M. R. (1992). Discovering common ground. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  72. Westley, F., Zimmerman, B., & Patton, M. (2009). Getting to maybe: How the world is changed. Toronto, ON: Vintage Canada.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OCAD UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations