Advertisement

Access, Equity and Hazards: Highlighting a Socially Just and Ecologically Resilient Perspective on Water Resources

  • M. Usman MirzaEmail author
  • Daanish Mustafa
Part of the Disaster Risk Reduction book series (DRR)

Abstract

Historically there was a general trend towards infrastructural and physical investment in supply side water related initiatives for the provision of clean drinking water and livelihood needs such as irrigation and agriculture. The critical missing link was the absence of a social/human aspect to water resources and its relation to the human society. Access to water resources revolved predominantly around the health and livelihood needs of the society. Multiple values that a society could derive from its access to water were ignored. This limited focus on access to water coupled with a growing problem of water scarcity gave birth to a new phenomenon of considering water as an ‘economic good’. This commoditization of water meant water was provided based on the ability to pay and efficiency of use, thus further alienated the social value of water. Furthermore, the link between water and society can also be viewed from a hazards perspective. With the increasing awareness of climate change and water related hazards, view of water based upon assumption of average normal conditions is no longer tenable. Building resilience and adaptation capacity to address water hazards must involve a fundamental shift towards a planning paradigm that works inwards from extremes rather than outward from means. With this background, the objective of the chapter is to review water research literature through the tri-focal lens of Access, Equity and Hazards and attempt to identify the gaps – when the water resources field is viewed through this tri-focal lens. To set the stage, the chapter will first briefly discuss the rationale for the choice of our tri-focal analytical lens before delving into the international academic and policy literature to address the aforementioned objectives.

Keywords

Social justice Ecological resilience Water Equity Risk 

References

  1. Adger WN (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16:268–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnell NW, Gosling SN (2013) The impacts of climate change on river flow regimes at the global scale. J Hydrol 486:351–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakker K (2003a) An uncooperative commodity: privatizing water in England and Wales. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakker K (2003b) Archipelagos and networks: urbanization and water privatization in the South. Geogr J 169:328–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakker K (2005) Neoliberalizing nature? Market environmentalism in water supply in England and Wales. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 95(3):542–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bakker K (2010) Privatizing water: governance failure and the world’s urban water crisis. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  7. Bates SF, Getches DH, MacDonnell LJ, Wilkinson CF (1993) Searching out the headwaters: change and rediscovery in western water policy. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  8. Berkes F (2009) Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. J Environ Manag 90:1692–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkes FL, Colding J, Folke C (2002) Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biswas AK (2008) Integrated water resources management: is it working? Int J Water Resour Dev 24(1):5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brannstrom C, Clarke J, Newport M (2004) Civil society participation in the decentralisation of Brazil’s water resources: assessing participation in three states. Singap J Trop Geogr 25:304–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Budds J (2004) Power, nature and neoliberalism: the political ecology of water in Chile. Singap J Trop Geogr 25:322–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burton I, Kates RW, White GF (1993) The environment as hazard. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Cutter SL (1996) Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Prog Hum Geogr 20:529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cutter SL (2001) American hazardscapes: the regionalization of hazards and disasters. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  16. Cutter SL, Boruff BJ, Shirley WL (2003) Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Soc Sci Q 84:242–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Finn M, Jackson S (2011) Protecting indigenous values in water management: a challenge to conventional environmental flow assessments. Ecosystems 14:1232–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Folke C (2006) Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Glob Environ Chang 16:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fordham M (2003) Gender, disaster and development: the necessity for integration. In: Pelling M (ed) Natural disasters and development in a globalizing world. Routledge, London, pp 57–74Google Scholar
  20. Foucault M (1980) Power/knowledge: selected interviews and other writings, 1972–1977. Pantheon Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Frederick KD, Major DC (1997) Climate change and water resources. Clim Chang 37:7–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gallopin G (2006) Linkages between vulnerability, resilience and adaptive capacity. Glob Environ Chang 16:293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gerlak AK, Varady RG, Petit O, Haverland AC (2011) Hydrosolidarity and beyond: can ethics and equity find a place in today’s water resource management? Water Int 36:251–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gleick P (2000) The changing water paradigm: a look at twenty first century water resources development. Water Int 25:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gober P (2013) Getting outside the water box: the need for new approaches to water planning and policy. Water Resour Manag 27:955–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Haas PM (2004) When does power listen to truth? A constructivist approach to the policy process. J Eur Public Policy 11:569–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hartvigsen G, Kinzig A, Peterson G (1998) Use and analysis of complex adaptive systems in ecosystem science. Ecosystems 1:427–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hefny M (2009) Water management ethics in the framework of environmental and general ethics: the case of Islamic water ethics. In: Llamas R, Martinez-Cortina L, Mukherji A (eds) Water ethics. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 25–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hewitt K (1983) Interpretations of calamity from the viewpoint of human ecology. Allen and Unwin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoekstra A (1998) Appreciation of water: four perspectives. Water Policy 1:605–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Homer-Dixon TF (1994) Environmental scarcities and violent conflict: evidence from cases. Int Secur 19(1):5–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hope RA, Gowing JW (2003) Managing water to reduce poverty: water and livelihood linkages in a rural South African context. Alternative Water Forum. University of Bradford, Centre for International Development, BradfordGoogle Scholar
  33. Hughes RA (2010) Pro-justice ethics, water scarcity, human rights. J Law Relig 25:521–540Google Scholar
  34. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, 996 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, 1535 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Jagerskog A (2002) Contributions of regime theory in understanding interstate water cooperation lessons learned in the Jordan River Basin. In: Turton A, Henwood R (eds) Hydropolitics in the developing world: a South African perspective. African Water Issues Research Unit, Pretoria, pp 73–78Google Scholar
  37. Kaika M (2003) Constructing scarcity and sensationalizing water politics. Antipode 35:919–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Langford M (2005) The United Nations concept of water as a human right: a new paradigm for old problems? Int J Water Resour Dev 21:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lempert RJ, Popper SW, Bankes SS (2003) Shaping the next one hundred years: new methods for quantitative, long-term policy analysis. RAND Corporation, Santa MonicaGoogle Scholar
  40. Levin SA (1998) Ecosystems and the biosphere as complex adaptive systems. Ecosystems 1:431–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lightfoot DR (1996) Moroccan Khettara: traditional irrigation and progressive desiccation. Geoforum 27(2):261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Llamas R (2003) Ethical considerations in water management systems. Water Nepal 10:13–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Loftus A, McDonald DA (2001) Of liquid dreams: a political ecology of water privatization in Buenos Aires. Environ Urban 13:179–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mageed YA, White GF (1995) Critical analysis of existing institutional arrangements. Int J Water Resour Dev 11(2):103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McDonald DA, Pape J (2002) Cost recovery and the crisis of service delivery in South Africa. Zed Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  46. McDonald DA, Ruiters G (2005) The age of commodity: water privatization in Southern Africa. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Mehta L, Mirosa O (2004) Financing water for all: behind the border policy convergence in water management. Institute of Development Studies, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  48. Michel AA (1967) The Indus rivers: a study of the effects of partition. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  49. Mirosa O, Harris LM (2012) Human right to water: contemporary challenges and contours of a global debate. Antipode 44:932–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Moench M, Dixit A, Caspari E (2003) Water, human rights and governance: issues, debates and perspectives. Water Nepal 10:1–9Google Scholar
  51. Mukheibir P (2010) Water access, water scarcity, and climate change. Environ Manag 45:1027–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Muller M (2007) Adapting to climate change water management for urban resilience. Environ Urban 19:99–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Muro M, Jeffrey P (2008) A critical review of the theory and application of social learning in participatory natural resource management processes. J Environ Plan Manag 51:325–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Murray-Rust H, Lashari B, Memon Y (2000) Water distribution equity in Sind province. International Water Management Institute, ColomboGoogle Scholar
  55. Mustafa D (2002) To each according to his power? Participation, access, and vulnerability in irrigation and flood management in Pakistan. Environ Plan D: Soc Space 20:737–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mustafa D (2013) Water resource management in a vulnerable world. I.B. Tauris, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Mustafa D, Reeder P (2009) ‘People is all that is left to privatize’: water supply privatization, globalization and social justice in Belize City, Belize. Int J Urban Reg Res 789–808Google Scholar
  58. Nelson DR, Adger WN, Brown K (2007) Adaptation to environmental change: contributions of a resilience framework. Annu Rev Environ Resour 32:395–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nicol A (2000) Adopting a sustainable livelihoods approach to water projects: implications for policy and practice. Overseas Development Institute, LondonGoogle Scholar
  60. Paavola J, Adger NW (2006) Fair adaptation to climate change. Ecol Econ 56:594–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pahl-Wostl C (1995) The dynamic nature of ecosystems: chaos and order entwined. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  62. Pahl-Wostl C (2005) Towards sustainability in the water sector: the importance of human actors and processes of social learning. Aquat Sci 64:394–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pahl-Wostl C (2007) Transitions towards adaptive management of water facing climate and global change. Water Resour Manag 21:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pahl-Wostl C, Hare M (2004) Processes of social learning in integrated resources management. J Commun Appl Soc Psychol 14:193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Parnell S (2007) Urban governance in the South: the politics of rights and development. In: Cox K, Louw M, Robinson J (eds) A handbook of political geography. Sage, London, pp 1857–1876Google Scholar
  66. Pelling M, Manuel-Navarrete D (2011) From resilience to transformation: the adaptive cycle in two Mexican urban centers. Ecol Soc 16(2):11Google Scholar
  67. Pradhan R, Meinzen-Dick R (2003) Which rights are right? Water rights, culture, and underlying values. Water Nepal 9/10:37–61Google Scholar
  68. Putnam RD (2000) Bowling alone: collapse and revival of the American community. Simon & Schuster, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ribot JC, Peluso NL (2003) A theory of access. Rural Sociol 68:153–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Roberts A (2008) Privatizing social reproduction: the primitive accumulation of water in an era of neoliberalism. Antipode 40:535–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rogers P, de Silva R, Bhatia R (2002) Water is an economic good: how to use prices to promote equity, efficiency, and sustainability. Water Policy 4:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Serageldin I (1995) Water resources management: a new policy for a sustainable future. Water Int 20:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sheehan J (2001) Indigenous property rights and river management. Water Sci Technol 43:235–242Google Scholar
  74. Siebenhuner B (2008) Learning in international organizations in global environmental governance. Glob Environ Polit 8:92–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith N (1990) Uneven development: nature, capital and the production of space, 2nd edn. Basil Blackwell, Oxford/CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  76. Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16:282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stocker TF, Raible CC (2005) Climate change: water cycle shifts gear. Nature 434:830–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Strang V (2004) The meaning of water. Berg, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  79. Swyngedouw E (1997) Power, nature, and the city. The conquest of water and the political ecology of urbanization in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Environ Plan 29:311–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Swyngedouw E (1999) Modernity and hybridity: nature, regeneracionismo, and the production of the Spanish waterscape, 1890–1930. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 89(3):443–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Syme GJ, Nancarrow BE (2008) Justice and the allocation of benefits from water. Soc Altern 27:21–25Google Scholar
  82. Tierney KJ, Lindell MK, Perry RW (2001) Facing the unexpected: disaster preparedness and response in the United States. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  83. Watkins K (2006) Human development report 2006 beyond scarcity: power, poverty and the global water crisis. UNDP, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Watts M (1983) On the poverty of theory: natural hazards research in context. In: Hewitt K (ed) Interpretations of calamity for the viewpoint of human ecology. Allen and Unwin, Boston, pp 231–262Google Scholar
  85. Wescoat JL (1987) The ‘Practical Range of Choice’ in water resources geography. Prog Hum Geogr 11:41–59Google Scholar
  86. Wescoat J, Halvorson S, Mustafa D (2000) Water management in the Indus basin of Pakistan: a half-century perspective. Int J Water Resour Dev 16(3):391–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. White GF (1968) With the committee, water and choice in the Colorado Basin: an example of alternatives in water management. National Research Council Committee on Water, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  88. Wisner B, Blaikie P, Cannon T, Davis I (2004) At risk. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. Wouters P (2000) The relevance and role of water law in the sustainable development of freshwater: from “hydrosovereignty” to “hydrosolidarity”. Water Int 25(2):202–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. WWAP (2003) Water for people, water for life. United Nations World Water Assessment Programme. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  91. Zeitoun M, Allan JA (2008) Applying hegemony and power theory to transboundary water analysis. Water Policy 10:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zeitoun M, Warner J (2006) Hydro-hegemony – a framework for analysis of trans-boundary water conflicts. Water Policy 8:435–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zwarteveen MZ (1997) Water: from basic need to commodity: a discussion on gender and water rights in the context of irrigation. Gend Prop Rights 25:1335–1349Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leadership for Environment and Development (LEAD) PakistanIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of GeographyKing’s CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations