Preface: Natural Computing and Computational Aesthetics

  • Fuminori Akiba
Open Access
Conference paper
Part of the Proceedings in Information and Communications Technology book series (PICT, volume 6)


Computational aesthetics already has had a long history. As early as 1928, G.D. Birkhoff introduced the concept of the aesthetic measure (M) and defined it as the ratio between order (O) and complexity (C): M = O/C. In Japan, in September 1964, art philosopher H. Kawano published the first computer-generated works in IBM Review (see the Website [$7663 ] of the exhibition: “Hiroshi Kawano –The Philosopher at the Computer,” 2012, ZKM, Karlsruhe, Germany).

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Fuminori Akiba
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Information ScienceNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

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