Advertisement

Atmospheric Deposition of Reactive Nitrogen as a Regional-Scale Eutrophication Stress on the Coral Reef Ecosystem

  • Toshihiro Miyajima
  • Naoko Morimoto
  • Takashi Nakamura
  • Takahiro Yamamoto
  • Atsushi Watanabe
  • Kazuo Nadaoka
Chapter
Part of the Coral Reefs of the World book series (CORW, volume 5)

Abstract

Long-range transport and deposition of atmospheric pollutants from mid-latitude industrial regions to low-latitude seas have the potential to degrade coral reefs. We investigated the atmospheric wet deposition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) to coral reef sites around the Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands in the subtropical western North Pacific. The deposition rate of DIN was higher in autumn and winter than in summer. The annual N deposition was 3–8 times higher than rates previously observed at subtropical North Atlantic reef sites and was almost as large as the cyanobacterial N2 fixation rate previously estimated for Ishigaki reefs. A backward trajectory analysis of an air mass suggested that the dominant remote emission source for atmospheric nitrate in winter was coastal industrial areas in continental China. A comparison with previous reports suggested that the influence of transboundary pollution on the N budget at the study site had significantly increased during the first decade of the twenty-first century.

Keywords

Atmospheric deposition Coral reefs Reactive nitrogen Seasonal variation 

References

  1. Agata S, Kumada M, Satake H (2006) Characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions and chemistry of precipitation on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa, Japan. Chikyukagaku (Geochemistry) 40:111–123 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  2. Aneja VP, Roelle PA, Murray GC, Southerland J, Erisman JW, Fowler D, Asman WAH, Patni N (2001) Atmospheric nitrogen compounds II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment. Atmos Environ 35:1903–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Araguás-Araguás L, Froehlich K, Rozanski K (1998) Stable isotope composition of precipitation over Southeast Asia. J Geophys Res 103:721–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barile P, Lapointe B (2005) Atmospheric nitrogen deposition from a remote source enriches macroalgae in coral reef ecosystems near Green Turtle Cay, Abacos, Bahamas. Mar Pollut Bull 50:1262–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. D’Elia CF, Wiebe WJ (1990) Biogeochemical nutrient cycles in coral-reef ecosystems. In: Dubinsky Z (ed) Coral reefs. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V, Amsterdam, pp 49–74Google Scholar
  6. Dentener F., Drevet J., Lamarque J.F., Bey I., Eickhout B., Fiore A.M., Hauglustaine D., Horowitz L.W., Krol M., Kulshrestha U.C., Lawrence M., Galy-Lacaux C., Rast S., Shindell D., Stevenson D., Van Noije T., Atherton C., Bell N., Bergman D., Butler T., Cofala J., Collins B., Doherty R., Ellingsen K., Galloway J., Gauss M., Montanaro V., Muller J.F., Pitari G., Rodriguez J., Sanderson M., Solmon F., Strahan S., Schultz M., Sudo K., Szopa S. and Wild O. (2006) Nitrogen and sulfur deposition on regional and global scales: a multimodel evaluation. Global Biogeochem Cycles 20, doi: 10.1029/2005GB002672
  7. Doney SC, Mahowald N, Lima I, Feely RA, Mackenzie FT, Lamarque J-F, Rasch PJ (2007) Impact of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition on ocean acidification and the inorganic carbon system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:14580–14585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fanning K (1989) Influence of atmospheric pollution on nutrient limitation in the ocean. Nature 339:460–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Galloway J, Dentener F, Capone D, Boyer E, Howarth R, Seitzinger S, Asner G, Cleveland C, Green P, Holland E, Karl D, Michaels A, Porter J, Townsend A, Vorosmarty C (2004) Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future. Biogeochemistry 70:153–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gao Y (2002) Atmospheric nitrogen deposition to Barnegat Bay. Atmos Environ 36:5783–5794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gruber N, Galloway J (2008) An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle. Nature 451:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jacob DJ (1999) Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim TW, Lee K, Najjar RG, Jeong HD, Jeong HJ (2011) Increasing N abundance in the northwestern Pacific Ocean due to atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Science 334:505–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Knap A, Jickells T, Pszenny A, Galloway J (1986) Significance of atmospheric-derived fixed nitrogen on productivity of the Sargasso Sea. Nature 320:158–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Knapp A, Hastings M, Sigman D, Lipschultz F, Galloway J (2010) The flux and isotopic composition of reduced and total nitrogen in Bermuda rain. Mar Chem 120:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Meyers T, Sickles J, Dennis R, Russell K, Galloway J, Church T (2001) Atmospheric nitrogen deposition to coastal estuaries and their watersheds. In: Nitrogen loading in coastal water bodies: an atmospheric perspective. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 53–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nakamura T, Matsumoto K, Uematsu M (2005) Chemical characteristics of aerosols transported from Asia to the East China Sea: an evaluation of anthropogenic combined nitrogen deposition in autumn. Atmos Environ 39:1749–1758Google Scholar
  18. Ohara T, Akimoto H, Kurokawa J-I, Horii N, Yamaji K, Yan X, Hayasaka T (2007) An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources for the period 1980–2020. Atmos Chem Phys 7:4419–4444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Owens NJP, Galloway JN (1992) Episodic atmospheric nitrogen deposition to oligotrophic oceans. Nature 357:397–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Paerl HW (1997) Coastal eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: importance of atmospheric deposition and groundwater as “new” nitrogen and other nutrient sources. Limnol Oceanogr 42:1154–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Paerl HW (2002) Connecting atmospheric nitrogen deposition to coastal eutrophication. Environ Sci Technol 36:323A–326ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Paerl HW, Dennis RL, Whitall DR (2002) Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: implications for nutrient over-enrichment of coastal waters. Estuaries 25:677–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pan Y, Wang Y, Tang G, Wu D (2012) Wet and dry deposition of atmospheric nitrogen at ten sites in Northern China. Atmos Chem Phys 12:6515–6535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Poor N, Pribble R, Greening H (2001) Direct wet and dry deposition of ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium and nitrate to the Tampa Bay Estuary, FL, USA. Atmos Environ 35:3947–3955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Radojevic M, Lim L (1995) Short-term variation in the concentration of selected ions within individual tropical rainstorms. Water Air Soil Pollut 85:2363–2368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Seymour MD, Stout T (1983) Observations on the chemical composition of rain using short sampling times during a single event. Atmos Environ 17:1483–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tomoyose N, Yogi K, Nagamine K (2003) Wet deposition in Ozato, Okinawa. Annual Report of Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment 37, 47–50 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  28. Umezawa Y, Miyajima T, Kayanne H, Koike I (2002) Significance of groundwater nitrogen discharge into coral reefs at Ishigaki Island, southwest of Japan. Coral Reefs 21:346–356Google Scholar
  29. Wenig M, Spichtinger N, Stohl A, Held G, Beirle S, Wagner T, Jähne B, Platt U (2003) Intercontinental transport of nitrogen oxide pollution plumes. Atmos Chem Phys 3:387–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshihiro Miyajima
    • 1
  • Naoko Morimoto
    • 1
  • Takashi Nakamura
    • 2
  • Takahiro Yamamoto
    • 2
    • 3
  • Atsushi Watanabe
    • 2
  • Kazuo Nadaoka
    • 2
  1. 1.Atmosphere and Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoKashiwaJapan
  2. 2.School of Environment and SocietyTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Environment and Life Science CenterKuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchKuwaitKuwait

Personalised recommendations