Post-Disaster Housing Reconstruction in Indonesia: Review and Lessons from Aceh, Yogyakarta, West Java and West Sumatera Earthquakes

Part of the Disaster Risk Reduction book series (DRR)


The post-disaster situation offers opportunities to rebuild liveable environment for achieving safer communities in the future, and housing reconstruction plays a crucial role in rebuilding the communities. In the past decade, Indonesia has experienced several major destructive earthquakes causing severe damages to infrastructures and human settlements. An ex-post review of the past experiences and challenges in post-disaster housing reconstruction after earthquakes in Aceh (2004), Yogyakarta (2006), West Java (2009) and West Sumatera (2009) reveals some strategic issues in implementing safer housing reconstruction that have to be addressed in the future for achieving “build back better” post-disaster reconstruction programs. Past experiences showed that training and capacity building of construction personnel and home-owners, through the dissemination of guidelines and manuals as well as building codes and standards for anti-seismic design, which have been implemented in the housing reconstruction programs by the national and local governments, NGOs and aid agencies have improved the practices by builders and masons in the areas that had experienced major earthquakes, but in general the attitudes of the building industry as well as local government building administrators in ensuring the housing earthquake safety still need to improve. Nevertheless, some good practices have been observed in several post-disaster housing reconstruction programs that shed the light to the development of better strategies for achieving earthquake safer housing, through the introduction of various supporting policies such as better project delivery systems, better mechanism for providing supervision and technical advices, more down-to-earth training and capacity building mechanism as well as smarter financing and incentives system, supported by appropriate technology approaches. Awareness building program is an important part of the mechanism and should be taken out seriously as it affect significantly the risk perception of the stakeholders, which is one of the key elements in the decision making process in investing for safer housing.


Anti seismic design Awareness raising and training Build back better Building administration Housing recovery 



The authors wish to acknowledge GRIPS and Building Research Institute of Japan for funding the investigations in Aceh (2006) and in Padang (2011), Oxfam GB in West Java and West Sumatera (2010) and International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC) in West Sumatera (2010). Specifically, the third and fourth authors wish to thank Osaka Gas Foundation and Institute of Technology Bandung for the grant on the research on Planning for Post Disaster Recovery, Case Study of Earthquake Disaster in Pangalengan, Bandung District, West Java (2012). A special thank goes also to Prof. Sarwidi from the Indonesian Islamic University (UII) in Yogyakarta for providing the nice pictures of the igloo-like houses in Sleman, Yogyakarta.


  1. Bappenas (2005) Master plan for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the regions and communities of the province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and the Islands of Nias, Province of North Sumatera, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  2. Bappenas (2006) Preliminary Damage and Loss Assessment: Yogyakarta and Central Java natural disaster. In: The 15th meeting of the consultative group in Indonesia, Bappenas, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  3. Bappenas (2007) Laporan Penilaian Kerusakan dan Kerugian Bencana Gempa Bumi Bengkulu tahun 2007 (Preliminary damage and loss assessment: the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake), Bappenas, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  4. Bappenas (2009) Rencana Aksi Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Wilayah Pasca Bencana Gempa di Provinsi Sumatera Barat Tahun 2009–2011 (the post disaster action plan of rehabilitation and reconstruction in west Sumatera Province 2009–2011). Bappenas (ed), Bappenas, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  5. Bappenas (2010) Rencana Aksi Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Wilayah Pasca Bencana Gempa di Provinsi Jawa Barat Tahun 2009–2011 (the post disaster action plan of rehabilitation and reconstruction in west Java Province 2009–2011). Bappenas (ed), JakartaGoogle Scholar
  6. Barakat S (2003) Housing reconstruction after conflict and disaster. Humanitarian Policy Group, Network papers 43:1–40Google Scholar
  7. Berke PR, Kartez J, Wenger D (1993) Recovery after disaster: achieving sustainable development, mitigation, and equity. Disasters 17(2):93–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bisri MBF (2012) Exploring intergovernmental cooperation in disaster management. Institute of Technology Bandung, BandungGoogle Scholar
  9. Boen T (2006a) Building safer Aceh reconstruction of houses, one year after the Dec. 26, 2004 tsunami. Presented during 40th anniversary of Trisakti University, “Answering the challenges in today’s civil engineering”, Jakarta, 26 January 2006Google Scholar
  10. Boen T (2006b) Reconstruction of houses in Aceh, twenty months after the Dec. 26, 2004. In: 12th Japan association earthquake engineering (JAEE) symposium, Japan, November 2006Google Scholar
  11. Boen T (2008) Lessons from the reconstruction of houses in Aceh after the December 26, 2004 tsunami. International symposium 2008 on earthquake safe housing, Tokyo, 28–29 November 2008Google Scholar
  12. Boen T, Pribadi KS (2007) Engineering the non engineered houses for better earthquake resistance in Indonesia. The DRH contents meeting- EDM-NIED, Kobe, pp 202–208Google Scholar
  13. BRR (2008) Synchronizing the recovery: semester report 2008. BRR, Banda AcehGoogle Scholar
  14. BRR and International Partners (2005) Aceh and Nias one year after the tsunami – the recovery effort and way forward. Badan Rekonstruksi dan Rehabilitasi, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  15. Chang Y, Wilkinson S, Potangaroa R, Seville E (2010) Resourcing challenges for post-disaster housing reconstruction: a comparative analysis. Building Res Inf 38(3):247–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chang Y, Wilkinson S, Potangaroa R, Seville E (2011) Donor-driven resource procurement for post-disaster reconstruction: constraints and actions. Habitat Int 35(2):199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davidson CH, Johnson C, Lizarralde G, Dikmen N, Sliwinski A (2007) Truths and myths about community participation in post-disaster housing projects. Habitat Int 31(1):100–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dercon B, Kusumawijaya M (2007) Two years of settlement and recovery in Aceh and Nias: what should the planners have learned. In: 43rd ISOCARP congress 2007, Antwerp, 16–23 SeptemberGoogle Scholar
  19. Dikmen N (2006) Relocation or rebuilding in the same area: an important factor for decision making for post disaster housing projects. In: Proceedings of the international conference and student competition on post-disaster reconstruction “meeting stakeholder interests”, Florence, pp 17–19Google Scholar
  20. Elnashai AM, Kim SJ, Yun GJ, Sidarta D (2006) The Yogyakarta earthquake of May 27, 2006, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilbret R (2001) Doing more for those made homeless by natural disasters. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  22. Green RA (2008) Unauthorised development and seismic hazard vulnerability: a study of squatters and engineers in Istanbul, Turkey. Disasters 32(3):358–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. IDEP (2010) Build back better: public awareness campaign, west Sumatera. IDEP, BaliGoogle Scholar
  24. Ikaputra (2012) Synergy for house reconstruction of post-earthquake: a case study of Java post-earthquake 2006. J Appl Environ Biol Sci 2(1):28–34Google Scholar
  25. Ikaputra (2008) People response to localize the imported culture study case: the dome house in the rural culture post Javanese earthquake 2006. The 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, Beijing, 12–17 OctoberGoogle Scholar
  26. Jayasuriya S, McCawley P, Resosudarmo BP, Weerakon D (2010) The Asian tsunami: aid and reconstruction after a disaster. Asian Development Bank Institute/Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham/MassachusettsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jha AK, Duyne JE (2010) Safer homes, stronger communities: a handbook for reconstructing after natural disasters. World Bank Publications, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  28. Kondo T, Maly E (2012) Housing recovery by type of resident involvement‐providing housing vs. mobilizing residents. The first international conference for International Society of Habitat Engineering and Design (ISHED), Shanghai, 13–14 October 2012Google Scholar
  29. Lindell MK, Prater CS (2003) Assessing community impacts of natural disasters. Nat Hazards Rev 4:176–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. MacRae G, Hodgkin D (2011) Half full or half empty? Shelter after the Jogjakarta earthquake. Disasters 35(1):243–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matsumaru R, Nagami K, Takeya K (2012) Reconstruction of the Aceh region following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami disaster: a transportation perspective. IATSS Res 36(1):11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meguro K (2008) Technological and social approaches to achieve earthquake safer engineered houses. The 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, Beijing, 12–17 October 2008Google Scholar
  33. Monday J (2002) Building back better: creating a sustainable community after disaster. University of Boulder, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  34. Narafu T, Imai H, Matsuzaki S, Sakoda K, Matsumura F, Ishiyama Y, Tasaka A (2008) Basic study for bridge between engineering and construction practice of non-engineered houses. The 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, Beijing, 12–17 OctoberGoogle Scholar
  35. Nazara S, Resosudarmo BP (2007) Aceh-Nias reconstruction and rehabilitation: progress and challenges at the end of 2006. Asian Development Bank Institute, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  36. Ochiai C, Shaw R (2009) Post-disaster reconstruction in urban areas in AcehGoogle Scholar
  37. Okazaki K, Pribadi KS, Kusumastuti D, Boen T, Ando S (2010) Safety issues regarding reconstructed buildings in Aceh, Indonesia. UNESCO-IPRED-RIHS international workshop on surveys and activities on post-earthquake disaster, Padang, 6–8 July 2010Google Scholar
  38. Oliver-Smith A (1990) Post disaster housing reconstruction and social inequality: a challenge to policy and practice. Disasters 14(1):7–19Google Scholar
  39. Olshansky R, Chang S (2009) Planning for disaster recovery: emerging research needs and challenge. Progress Plan 72:200–209Google Scholar
  40. Olshansky RB, Johnson LA, Topping KC (2006) Rebuilding communities following disaster: lessons from Kobe and Los Angeles. Built Environ 32(4):354–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ozden AT (2006) Developing a model for community involvement in post-disaster housing programmes. In: Proceedings of the international conference and student competition on post-disaster reconstruction “meeting stakeholder interests”, Florence, 17–19, 2006Google Scholar
  42. Pandelaki EE, Shiozaki Y (2008) Social sustainability of new-Ngelepen dome housing as post-disaster housing reconstruction of Central Java-Yogyakarta earthquake 2006. 21st EAROPH world planning and human settlement congress & mayors’ caucus, Japan, October 2008Google Scholar
  43. Peacock WG, Dash N, Zhang Y (2007) Sheltering and housing recovery following disaster. In: Rodriguez H, Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR (eds) Handbook of disaster research. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Pribadi KS, Kusumastuti D, Febrin D, Fazan I, Okazaki K, Saito T (2011) Data collection on non-engineered construction in Padang city. Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  45. Pribadi KS, Kusumastuti D, Rildova (2008) Learning from recent Indonesian: an overview to improve structural performance. The 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, Beijing, 12–17 OctoberGoogle Scholar
  46. Raharjo W (2007) Post-Disaster Housing in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Shelter Urban Poor 165Google Scholar
  47. Resosudarmo BP, Sugiyanto C, Kuncoro A (2012) Livelihood recovery after natural disasters and the role of aid: the case of the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake. Asian Econ J 26(3):233–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Satyarno I (2009) Socialization and training in earthquake-resistant housing construction for construction workers in Trimulyo village, Jetis sub-district, Bantul district, Yogyakarta, University of Gadjah Mada & International Recovery PlatformGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith GP, Wenger D (2007) Sustainable disaster recovery: operationalizing an existing agenda. In: Rodriguez H, Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR (eds) Handbook of disaster research. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Suarjana M, Sengara IM (2008) Lessons learned from Yogya and Aceh recovery program. The 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, Beijing, 12–17 OctoberGoogle Scholar
  51. Soelaksono A (2009) NGO and donor coordination to speeds up reconstruction and avoid NGO competition. In: 4th annual international workshop and expo on Sumatera tsunami disaster and recovery. Disaster Mitigation Research Center of Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, pp 23–26Google Scholar
  52. Steinberg F (2007) Housing reconstruction and rehabilitation in Aceh and Nias, Indonesia—rebuilding lives. Habitat Int 31(1):150–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Telford J, Cosgrave J (2007) The international humanitarian system and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamis. Disasters 31(1):1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. World Bank (2012) REKOMPAK: rebuilding indonesia’s communities after disasters. World Bank, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  55. UNOCHA (2009) West Java Earthquake: situation report number 5, UNOCHA, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Usamah M, Haynes K (2012) An examination of the resettlement program at Mayon Volcano: what can we learn for sustainable volcanic risk reduction? Bull Volcanol 1–21Google Scholar
  57. Vanhoebrouck P, Sagala S (2010) Not so helpless victims: social capital roles in the 2009 West Sumatra earthquake recovery. Research report of International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent (IFRC), IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  58. Yasaditama H, Sagala S (2012) Rebuilding settlements: learning from housing reconstruction process after West Java earthquake. The 2nd international conference on sustainable built environment, Islamic University of IndonesiaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringInstitute of Technology BandungBandungIndonesia
  2. 2.School of Architecture, Planning and Policy DevelopmentInstitute of Technology BandungBandungIndonesia

Personalised recommendations