Advertisement

Community Based Adaptation: Theory and Practice

  • A. K. M. Mamunur Rashid
  • Mizan R. Khan
  • Mizan R. Khan
Chapter
Part of the Disaster Risk Reduction book series (DRR)

Abstract

Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) has emerged as a notion in climate change discourse given to its extensive span as ‘practice area’. This is now widely practiced in Bangladesh particularly since 2002. In other parts of the world also, CBA is also an action area particularly after climate change impacts have begun to unfold in terms of increased climate disasters in recent years. Till now CBA has been conceived by the development practitioners as an effective approach to reduce vulnerability of the poor and marginalized people from climate change impacts. This was done under the framing of participatory development that was conceptualized in the 1970s and 1980s. Historical accounts reveal that the seed of thoughts on CBA is rooted in Taoism, which was developed in 600 BC in China. Now because of climate change, it is viewed that CBA as a practice area has come to stay. Therefore, it’s time to synthesize the practice experiences around the world into some form of coherent theories and concepts, so that it can play an effective role in strengthening adaptive capacity of the poor communities around the world. This chapter attempts to lay down a conceptual framework for the CBA, so that it can proceed further into its application with theoretical and methodological rigor. Our discussion on conceptual framing is substantiated by two case studies of CBA in southwest of Bangladesh, which we argue had sound conceptual and methodological rigor in their designing and implementation. Our conclusion is that CBA programme has to be people centered, process oriented, community led, knowledge oriented, empowerment focused and accountability driven. And all these aspects constitute major areas of further academic research and analysis.

Keywords

Climate change Climate change adaptation Community based adaptation Community based development Community led development Practices Theory 

References

  1. Adger WN, Agrawala S, Mirza MMQ, Conde C, O’Brien K, Pulhin J, Pulwarty R, Smith B, Takshi K (2007) Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 717–743Google Scholar
  2. Bettina K, Annecke W (2010) Community based climate change adaptation (CBA). Adaptation and Beyond Issue I (www.indigo-dc.org)
  3. CARE Bangladesh (2002a) Project Implementation Report (PIP) of RVCC Project. CARE, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  4. CARE Bangladesh (2002b) Knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) Report. CARE, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  5. CARE Bangladesh (2002c) Vulnerability Assessment Report for RVCC Project. CARE, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  6. CARE Bangladesh (2005a) Early lessons learned from the RVCC project on strategic lessonsGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourdieu P (1990) The logic of practice. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourdieu P (1998) Practical reason. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  9. CARE (2010) Community based adaptation toolkit. CARE, Merrifield VAGoogle Scholar
  10. Chambers R (1983) Rural development: putting the first last. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Chambers R (1992) Rural appraisal: rapid, relaxed and participatory. IDS Discussion Paper 311: BrightonGoogle Scholar
  12. Collins AE, Williams LE (2006) Community engagement with integrated diseases risk ­management. Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-TyneGoogle Scholar
  13. Diduck A, Briscoe E, Mithchell B (2006) Community based social learning in flood management: a Canadian case study. University of Winnipeg, WinnipegGoogle Scholar
  14. Dipholo KB (2002) Trends in participatory development. J Soc Dev Afr 17(1):59–80Google Scholar
  15. Ensor J, Berser R (2009) Community based adaptation and culture in theory and practice. In: Neil Adger W, Lorenzoni I, O’Brien K (eds) Adaptation to climate change: thresholds, values, ­governance. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  16. Escobar A (1995) Encountering development: the making and unmaking of the Third World. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  17. Fakhruddin SHM, Subbiah AR (2006) Community based cost effective Early Warning Dissemination Network (EWDN). Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), BangkokGoogle Scholar
  18. Fine B (2001) Social capital versus social theory: political economy and social science at the turn of the millennium. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Freire P (2000) Pedagogy of the oppressed. Continuum Press, New York (originally published in 1970)Google Scholar
  20. Gandhi MK (1962) Village Swaraj. Navjivan Press, AhmedabadGoogle Scholar
  21. Gusfield JR (1975) Community: a critical response. Basil Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Haq S (2008) Community based adaptation. Tiempo. Issue 68 http://www.tiempocyberclimate.org
  23. Heltberg R, Gitay H, Prabhu RG (2011) Community-based adaptation: lessons from a grant ­competition. Clim Pol. doi: 10.1080/14693062.2011.582344 Google Scholar
  24. IISD (2010) Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change Bulletin, 135(3). In: A summary of the forth international conference on Community Based Adaptation to Climate ChangeGoogle Scholar
  25. Malinowski B (1922) Argonauts of the Western Pacific. George Routledge and Sons, Limited, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Mansuri G, Rao V (2004) Community based and driven development: a critical review. World Bank Res Obs 19(1):1–39 (The World Bank: Washington D.C)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mondal P (2006) Disaster resilient communities: prepared to cope with disasters. Oxfam International, VietnamGoogle Scholar
  28. Msangi JP (2006) Climatic variability and risk management among Kuiseb Valley Topnaar Community. University of Namibia, WindhoekGoogle Scholar
  29. Nilson P (2006) The theory of community based health and safety programs: a critical examination. Ini Prev 12(3):140–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Olson M (1973) The logic of collective action: public goods and the theory of groups. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. Ostrom E (1990) Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rashid AKMM, Islam MTU (2006) Community risk assessment: an integrated etic and emic approaches to asses hazards and vulnerabilities. In: Amman WJ, Haig J, Huovinen C, Stocker M (eds) International disaster reduction conference, Part 2 extended abstractsGoogle Scholar
  33. Schumacher EF (1973) Small is beautiful: economics as if people mattered. Blond and Briggs, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Scott, James (1998) Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University PressGoogle Scholar
  35. Sen AK (1985) Commodities and capabilities. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  36. Sen AK (1999) Development as freedom. Knopf Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Sobranie Sochinenii NN (1950) Mikloucho-Maclay, vols I–IV. Moscow Academy of Sciences. Miscellaneous Papers vol I & II. Mitchell Library, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  38. Wade R (1988) Village republics: economic conditions for collective action in South India. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  39. White, Howard (1999) Dollars, dialogue and development. An evaluation of Swedish programme aid. Sida Evaluation 99/17. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation AgencyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. M. Mamunur Rashid
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mizan R. Khan
    • 3
  • Mizan R. Khan
    • 4
  1. 1.Poverty Environment and Climate Mainstreaming ProjectUNDP BangladeshDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyJahangirnagar UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.DhakaBangladesh
  4. 4.Environmental ManagementNorth South UniversityDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations