Long-Term Urbanization and Land Subsidence in Asian Megacities: An Indicators System Approach

  • Shinji KanekoEmail author
  • Tomoyo Toyota


Many of the lessons concerning urban environmental problems are well documented and practiced in international environmental cooperation projects. However, most urban environmental issues analyzed in the past have concentrated exclusively on air pollution, surface water pollution and waste management in cities. With this in mind, we focus on uncovered subsurface environmental issues in cities, which is an emerging problem in developing countries in Asia. As a first step, we collected existing knowledge and information from the literature and synthesized it into a Driving Forces-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework (Jago-on et al. Sci Total Environ 407:3089–3104, 2009). Building on our previous work, the current analysis attempts to develop a stage model concerning the long-term relationships between urban development and the emerging subsurface environmental problem of land subsidence and to compare the differences and commonalities across Asian developing countries. With the help of the DPSIR framework, we select and quantify the relevant indicators for each component of the requisite framework. The results indicate that Taipei has successfully utilized its latecomer advantage and that Bangkok has benefited from its natural capacity for groundwater storage. In addition, we find that Jakarta and Manila lag behind the other cities in terms of both the recognition of the issue and the introduction of regulation to combat the problem.


Gross Domestic Product Groundwater Level Water Demand Land Subsidence Stage Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abidin H, Djaja R et al (2001) Land subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and its geodetic monitoring system. Nat Hazards 28:365–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abidin H, Andreas H et al (2004) Land subsidence in the urban areas of Indonesia. 3rd FIG Regional Conference for Asia and the PacificGoogle Scholar
  3. Angus Maddison. Historical Statistics for the World Economy: 1-2006 AD. Accessed 10 November 2010
  4. Bai X, Imura H (2000) A comparative study of urban environment in East Asia: stage model of urban environmental evolution. Int Rev Glob Environ Strateg 1(1):135–158Google Scholar
  5. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) (various) Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia. Jakarta: BPS-Statistics IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  6. BPS (Statistics DKI Jakarta Provincial Office) (various) Jakarta in Figures. BSPGoogle Scholar
  7. CEC (Civil Engineering Center) (2009) Land subsidence survey report; 2009 (Heisei Nijunen Jibanchinka Chosa Houkokusyo). Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  8. Christopher S (2007) Planning the Megacity: Jakarta in the twentieth century. Routledge, London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Colbran N (2009) Will Jakarta be the next Atlantis? Excessive groundwater use resulting from a failing piped water network. Law Environ Dev J 5(1):18–38. Accessed 4 July 2010
  10. DBAS (Department of Budget, Accounting & Statistics) (2009) Taipei City statistical yearbook 2008. Department of Budget, Accounting & Statistics, Taipei City GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  11. DMR (Department of Mineral Resources) (1992) Records of groundwater monitoring wells in Bangkok and adjacent provinces, mitigation of groundwater crisis and land subsidence project (MGL Project) report no.1. Thailand, Ministry of Industry and Public WorksGoogle Scholar
  12. Doeppers DF (1984) Manila, 1900–1941: Social Change in Late Colonial Metropolis. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ESRI (Economic and Social Research Institute) Cabinet Office. Annual report on national accounts. Accessed 4 July 2010
  14. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation), Land and Water Division. AQUASTAT. Accessed 4 July 2010
  15. Ho SPS (1970) Economic development of Taiwan 1860–1970. Yale University Press, New Haven and LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Jago-on KAB, Kaneko S et al (2009) Urbanization and subsurface environmental issues: an attempt at DPSIR model application in Asian cities. Sci Total Environ 407:3089–3104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Larry S (1982) Portrait of Bangkok, published to commemorate the bicentennial of the capital of Thailand. Bangkok Metropolitan AdministrationGoogle Scholar
  18. Maddison A (2009) Statistics on world population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1-2008 AD. Accessed 4 July 2010
  19. METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) (various) Industrial statistics survey result report. Accessed 4 July 2010
  20. MIC (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) Historical Statistics of Japan. Statistics bureau. Accessed 4 July 2010
  21. Murdohardono D, Sudarsono U (1998) Land subsidence monitoring system in Jakarta. In: Proceedings of symposium on Japan–Indonesia IDNDR project; volcanology, tectonics, flood and sediment hazards, Bandung, pp 243–256Google Scholar
  22. NESDB (Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board). BKK & VICINITIES. Accessed 4 July 2010
  23. NSO (National Statistical Office) Philippine in figure. Republic of the Philippines. Accessed 4 July 2010
  24. OPG (Osaka Prefecture Government) (various). Osaka statistic yearbook, Osaka PrefectureGoogle Scholar
  25. Phien-wej N, Giao PH, Nutalaya P (2006) Land subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand. Eng Geol 82:187–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Piancharoen P (1997) Groundwater and land subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand. IAHS 121:355–364Google Scholar
  27. Pierre E (2005) Indonesia’s new national accounts. Bull Indones Econ Stud 41(2):253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rodolfo KS, Siringan F (2006) Global sea-level rise is recognized, but flooding from anthropogenic land subsidence is ignored around northern Manila Bay, Philippines. Disasters 30(1):118–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. RIEAF (Research Institute of Environment, Agriculture and Fisheries) (various). Osaka Prefecture Environmental White Paper, Osaka prefectureGoogle Scholar
  30. Sternstein L (1982) Portrait of Bangkok. Bangkok Metropolitan AdministrationGoogle Scholar
  31. Taniguchi M, Burnett WC, Ness G (2009) Integrated research on subsurface environments in Asian urban areas. Sci Total Environ 407:3076–3088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. TCG (Taipei City Government) (2005) Taipei city statistical yearbook 2004. Department of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (DBAS)Google Scholar
  33. TCG (Taipei City Government) (2008) Taipei city statistical yearbook 2007. DBASGoogle Scholar
  34. TMG (Tokyo Metropolitan Government) (various) Tokyo statistical yearbook. Tokyo PrefectureGoogle Scholar
  35. UN (United Nations), Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2008) World urbanization prospects: the 2007 revision. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. WRA (Water Resource Agency) Statistics of Water Resources. Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan. Accessed 4 July 2010

Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Japan International Cooperation AgencyShinjuku-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations