Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease that affects all ages, except children less than 2 years. It occurs during the course of various infections, particularly the acute exanthematous diseases of childhood (measles, rubella, chickenpox, and smallpox immunization), other common viral infections (i.e., Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses), and following vaccination against smallpox, measles, and rabies. The clinical features are the same regardless of the inciting event. The symptoms develop days to weeks after the onset of the predisposing cause. The symptoms and signs of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis are related to the portion of the central nervous system (CNS) that is most severely damaged. Death occurs in 20%–30%. There are neurological deficits in survivors.


White Matter Demyelinating Disease Concentric Structure Cranial Compute Tomography Magnetic Resonance Image Cranial 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

19 Demyelination

  1. 1.
    Prineas JW, McDonald WI, Franklin RJM (2002) In: Graham DI, Lantos PL (eds) Greenfield’s neuropathology, 7th edn, Vol 2. Arnold, London, pp 523–525.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mizuguchi M, Abe J, Mikkaichi K, Noma S, Yoshida K, Yamanaka T, Kamoshita S (1995) Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a new syndrome presenting with multifocal, symmetric brain lesions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 58:555–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mizuguchi M (1999) Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a novel form of acute encephalopathy prevalent in Japan and Taiwan. Brain Dev 21:138–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mizuguchi M, Hayashi M, Nakano I, Kuwashima M, Yoshida K, Nakai Y, Itoh M, Takashima S (2002) Concentric structure of thalamic lesions in acute necrotizing encephalopathy. Neuroradiology 44:489–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Personalised recommendations