Recognition of cellular receptors by bovine coronavirus
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Bovine coronavirus (BCV) initiates infection by attachment to cell surface receptors the crucial component of which is N-acetyl-9-O- acetylneuraminic acid. Inactivation of receptors by neuraminidase treatment and restoration of receptors by enzymatic resialylation of asialo-cells is described as a method to determine (i) the type of sialic acid that is recognized; (ii) the linkage specificity of the viral binding activity; (iii) the minimal amount of sialic acid required for virus attachment. Evidence is presented that both glycoproteins and glycolipids can serve as receptors for BCV provided they contain 9-O-acetylated sialic acid. A model is introduced proposing that after initial binding to sialic acid-containing receptors, the S-protein of BCV interacts with a specific protein receptor. This interaction may result in a conformational change that exposes a fusogenic domain and thus induces the fusion between the viral and the cellular membrane.
KeywordsSialic Acid Infectious Bronchitis Virus Linkage Type Mouse Hepatitis Virus Human Coronavirus
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