Navigation in real and virtual environments: Judging orientation and distance in a large-scale landscape
- 97 Downloads
Virtual environments (VE) provide an almost optimal setting for studying human navigation behaviour. The current study compares the ability of human subjects to judge the distance and orientation of places in a natural landscape and in its corresponding virtual 3D model. The results of the Euclidean distance judgements confirm that spatial knowledge acquired in VEs is less accurate than that acquired in the real world. However, distance judgements performed by subjects using a VRbicycle to actively move in the scene (active observer) were more accurate than those of subjects who were automatically driven through the landscape (passive observer). The accuracy of the orientation judgements was the same in both environments and independent of the use of the VRbicycle. The results suggest that the VRbicycle can facilitate the perception of spatial dimensions but that additional improvements of the man-machine interface of our VE are needed to improve the subjects’ sense of orientation.
KeywordsVirtual Environment Virtual World Simulation Environment Spatial Knowledge Active Observer
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Alfano, P.L, Michel, G.E. (1990). Restricting the field of view: Perceptual and performance effects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70, 35–45Google Scholar
- Bliss, J.P., Tidwell, P.D., Guest, M.A. (1997). The effectiveness of virtual reality for administering spatial navigation training to firefighters. Presence, 6(1), 73–86Google Scholar
- Darken, R.P, Sibert, J.L. (1993). A toolset for navigation in virtual environments. Proceedings of the ACM User Interface Software & Technology, 157–165Google Scholar
- Darken, R.P, Sibert, J.L. (1996). Wayfinding strategies and behaviors in large virtual worlds. Proceedings of ACM SIGCHI 96, 142–149Google Scholar
- Darken, R.P., Carmein, D. (1997). The omni-directional treadmill: A locomotion device for virtual worlds. Proceedings of UIST ‘97, 213–221Google Scholar
- Distler, H.K. (1996). Psychophysical experiments in virtual environments. In: Virtual Reality World 96 Conference Documentation, Munchen 1996: Computerwoche Verlag AG.Google Scholar
- Gillner, S., Mallot, H. A. (1998). Navigation and acquisition of spatial knowledge in a virtual maze. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (in press). Also: Technical Report No. 45, 1997, Max-Planck-Institut für biologische Kybernetik, Tübingen.Google Scholar
- Peruch, P., Gaunet, F. (1997). Virtual environments as a promising tool for investigating human spatial cognition. Accepted for publication in Current Psychology of Cognition.Google Scholar
- Richardson, A.E., Montello, D.R., Hegarty, M. (1998). Spatial knowledge acquisition from maps, and from navigation in real and virtual environments. Submitted to Memory and CognitionGoogle Scholar
- Singer, M.J., Allen, R.C., McDonald, D.P., Gildea, J.P. (1997). Terrain Appreciation in virtual environments: Spatial knowledge acquisition. Technical Report 1056, United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Google Scholar
- Van Veen, H.A.H.C, Distler, H.K., Braun, S.J., Bulthoff, H.H. (1998). Navigating through a virtual city: Using virtual reality technology to study human action and perception. Accepted for publication in Future Generation Computer Systems.Google Scholar