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Role of Biomechanical Stress in the Pathology of the Aorta

  • Giuseppina CaligiuriEmail author
  • Bernard P. Levy
  • Antonino Nicoletti
  • Jean-Baptiste Michel
Chapter

Abstract

The study of the pathology of the aorta must necessarily take into account the role of biomechanical stress that continuously impact on the biology of the cellular and molecular components of its wall. In mammals, the circulation requires a highly organized system, in which organ-regulated directional blood flow is propelled through the conductance arterial tree with a defined wall structure, by the pumping action of the mammalian heart.

A high blood pressure is therefore a compulsory biomechanical stress in human aortic biology. Fluids (radial convection) and particulate components (collision) play different and complementary role in the determinism of aortic pathologies and the relative complications linked to biomechanical stress such as atherosclerotic and aneurysmal diseases.

Hemodynamics in the phylogenetically selected, highly pressurized and branched arterial tree is indeed the most important common denominator of all arterial pathologies. Understanding the role played by biomechanical stress is therefore crucial for researchers and clinicians working within the field of aortic diseases, and nothing makes sense in the arterial pathology, except in the light of hemodynamics.

Keywords

Pressure Flow Impedance Arterial bifurcation Chronic dilation Acute rupture Atheroma Aneurysms Dissection 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppina Caligiuri
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Bernard P. Levy
    • 3
  • Antonino Nicoletti
    • 4
    • 2
  • Jean-Baptiste Michel
    • 2
  1. 1.Cardiology DepartmentUniversity Hospital Xavier BichatParisFrance
  2. 2.Inserm U1148ParisFrance
  3. 3.Vessels and Blood InstituteParis-Centre de Recherche Cardiovasculaire (PARCC)ParisFrance
  4. 4.Department of ImmunologyUniversity Paris DiderotParisFrance

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