Astrocytes perform a variety of functions in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Recent evidence suggests the robust upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) after CNS insult. However, little is known about the role of GFAP in the hippocampal degeneration after brain injury. We herein compared the GFAP knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice on the histological and behavioral outcome in response to cerebral trauma or kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure. Although all KO mice showed hippocampal CA3 neuronal degeneration, WT mice did not show any neuronal degeneration in CA3 subfield at 72 hrs after trauma. Thereafter, KO mice showed a higher susceptibility to KA-induced seizures and an increased number of pyknotic CA3 neurons 72 hrs after KA administration. These results indicate that GFAP plays a crucial role in the hippocampal neurodegeneration after CNS insult.