Pulp Fibers for Papermaking and Cellulose Dissolution

  • Pedro FardimEmail author
  • Tim Liebert
  • Thomas Heinze


Pulp fibers are extracted from biomass worldwide and extensively utilized for production of paper and as a raw material for products of dissolved cellulose. Different paper grades require diverse fiber properties that are achieved by a proper combination of fiber separation and functionalization methods. Dissolved cellulose can be functionalized to derivatives or regenerated to materials. The research, development, and innovation activities in the utilization of fibers are a constant activity of EPNOE partners, and it is present in several collaborative projects in the network. In this chapter, we describe how pulp fibers are separated from plants and further functionalized to be used in paper products or cellulose dissolution. Challenges and opportunities in research, development, and innovation are also discussed in combination with needs and trends of education of professionals in the topic of bio-based materials. Our main conclusion is that the forest-based industry will need intensive research and innovation activities based on multidisciplinary approach to create applications in different value chains of large commercial interest. Strategic partnership with chemical, energy, and food sectors are crucial for the pulp and paper industry in creating new markets and benefiting of the knowledge-based economy.


Pulp Fiber Chlorine Dioxide Fiber Wall Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid Paper Machine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alén R (2000) Basic chemistry of wood delignification. In: Stenius P (ed) Forest products chemistry. Fapet Oy, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  2. Beghello L (1998) The tendency of fibers to build flocs. Doctoral Thesis, Åbo Akademi University, Turku/Åbo, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  3. Berg JC (1993) The importance of acid base interactions in wetting, coating, adhesion and related phenomena. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 8((1):75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berry R (1996) (Oxidative) alkaline extraction. In: Dence CW, Reeve DW (eds) Pulping bleaching – principles and practice. TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlsson G (1996) Surface composition of wood pulp fibers - relevance to wettability, sorption and adhesion. PhD Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark JA (1978) Pulp technology and treatment for paper. Miller Freeman, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  7. Eero S (1981) Wood chemistry, fundamentals and applications. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Everett DH (1989) Basic principles of colloid science. Royal Society of Chemistry, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Fardim P, Durán N (2003) Modification of fiber surfaces during pulping and refining as analysed by SEM, XPS and ToF-SIMS. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 223:263–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fardim P, Holmbom B, Ivaska A, Karhu J, Mortha G, Laine J (2001) Critical comparison and validation of methods for determination of anionic groups in pulp fibres. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 17(3):346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fellers C, Norman B (1998) Pappersteknik, 3rd edn. TABS, Sweden (Swedish)Google Scholar
  12. Fengel D, Wegener G (1984) Wood: chemistry, ultrastructure, reactions. Walter de Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  13. Fink H-P, Weigel P, Purz HJ, Ganster J (2001) Structure formation of regenerated cellulose materials from NMMO-solutions. Progr Polym Sci 26(9):1473–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gerly A, Clémençon I (1999) The effect of flocculant/microparticles retention programs on floc properties. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 1:23Google Scholar
  15. Gierer J (1995) The chemistry of TCF bleaching. In: Proceedings of the 8th international symposium on wood and pulping chemistry, vol 1, Helsinki, p 285Google Scholar
  16. Heinze T, Dicke R, Koschella A, Kull AH, Klohr EA, Koch W (2000) Effective preparation of cellulose derivatives in a new simple cellulose solvent. Macromol Chem Phys 201:627–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Isogai A, Kitaoka C, Onabe F (1997) Effects of carboxyl groups in pulp on retention of alkylketene dimer. J Pulp Pap Sci 23(5):215Google Scholar
  18. Jäkärä J, Parén A, Hukkanen P, Autio P, Anderson R (2001) The effect of peracetic acid treatment of bleached kraft pulp in fine paper production. In: Proceedings of the 87th PAPTAC annual meeting, vol B, Montreal, Canada, p B1Google Scholar
  19. Jensen W (1977) “Puukemia”, Suomen Paperi- insinöörien Yhdistyksen oppi- ja käsikirja I, Toinen uudistettu painos. Turku, FinnishGoogle Scholar
  20. Kerekes R S, Soszynski R, Tam Doo PA (1985) In: Punton V (ed) Papermaking raw materials, transactions of the eighth fundamental research symposium. Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. KnowPap (2011) e-Learning environment for papermaking and automation. Accessed 3 Mar 2011
  22. Liebert T (2010) Cellulose solvents-remarkable history bright future. In: Liebert T, Heinze T, Edgar K (eds) Cellulose solvents: for analysis, shaping and chemical modification. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, ACS Symposium Series 1033, pp 3–54Google Scholar
  23. Liebert T, Heinze T (2008) Interactions of Ionic Liquids with Polysaccharides – 5. Solvents and reaction media for the modification of cellulose. BioResources 3(2):576–601Google Scholar
  24. Lierop B, Skothos A, Liebergott N (1996) Ozone delignification. In: Dence CW, Reeve DW (eds) Pulping bleaching – principles and practice. TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  25. Lindström T (1989) Fundamentals of papermaking, vol 1. Mechanical Engineering Publishing Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Lönnberg B (1999) Mechanical pulping. Fapet Oy, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  27. McCormick CL, Lichatowich DK (1979) Homogeneous solution reactions of cellulose, chitin, and other polysaccharides to produce controlled-activity pesticide systems. J Polym Sci Polym Lett Ed 17(8):479–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mcoy M (2010) Big plans for succinic acid. Chemical and Engineering News, December, p 23Google Scholar
  29. Metso Paper (undated) (
  30. Moyer M, Storrs C (2010) How Much is Left? The Limits of Earth’s Resources, Scientific American, September, On-line versionGoogle Scholar
  31. Owen D, Anderson JR, Homer G (1996) Bleaching Chemicals: Chlorine, Sodium Hydroxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Peroxy acids, Oxygen and Ozone. In: Dence CW, Reeve DW (eds) Pulping bleaching – principles and practice. TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  32. Ozaki Y, Sawatari A (1997) Surface characterization of a rosin sizing agent in paper by means of EPMA, ESCA and TOF-SIMS. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 12(4):260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Patel M (2009) Product overview and market projection of emerging bio-based plastics.
  34. Pikka O, Vesala R, Vilpponen A, Dahlöf H, Germgård Norden S, Bokström M, Steffes G (1999) Bleaching applications. In: Gullichsen J, Fogelholm C-J (eds) Chemical pulping. Fapet Oy, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  35. Potthast A (2006) Raw material for pulp. In: Sixta H (ed) Handbook of pulp. Weinheim, Willey-VCHGoogle Scholar
  36. Reeve DW (1996) Introduction to the principles and practice of pulp bleaching. In: Dence CW, Reeve DW (eds) Pulping bleaching – principles and practice. TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  37. Roberts J (1992) Neutral and alkaline sizing. PIRA Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Rydholm SA (1965) Pulping processes. Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Saranpää P (2003) Wood density and growth. In: Barnett JR, Jeronimidis G (eds) Wood quality and its biological basis. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. Schintlmeister P (2009) (Chair), Taking bio-based from promise to market: measures to promote the market introduction of innovative bio-based products, European Commission, Enterprise and Industry, NovemberGoogle Scholar
  41. Schweingruber FH (1993) Trees and wood in dendrochronology – morphological, anatomical, and tree-ring analytical characteristics of trees frequently used in dendrochronology. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  42. Singh RP (1979) The bleaching of pulp. TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  43. Sixta H, Potthast A, Krostschek, AW (2006) Chemical Pulping Processes. In: Sixta H (ed) Handbook of pulp. Weinheim, Willey-VCHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Swerin A (1995) Flocculation and fiber network strength in papermaking suspensions flocculated by retention aids systems. PhD Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  45. Wågberg L (1987) Adsorption of polyelectrolytes and polymer-induced flocculation of cellulosic fibres. PhD Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/WIen 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose TechnologyÅbo Akademi UniversityTurku/ÅboFinland
  2. 2.Centre of Excellence for Polysaccharide Research, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular ChemistryFriedrich Schiller University of JenaJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations