Regressive and Reflexive Mashups in Sampling Culture

  • Eduardo Navas

Abstract

During the first decade of the twenty-first century, sampling is practiced in new media culture when any software users including creative industry professionals as well as average consumers apply cut/copy & paste in diverse software applications. For professionals this could mean 3-D modelling software such as Maya (used to develop animations in films like Spiderman or Lord of the Rings);1 for average persons it could mean Microsoft Word, often used to write texts like this one. Cut/copy & paste which is, in essence, a common form of sampling, is a vital new media feature in the development of Remix. In Web 2.0 applications cut/copy & paste is a necessary element to develop mashups; yet the cultural model of mashups is not limited to software, but spans across media.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Mike Snider, “Maya Muscles its Way into Hollywood film awards”, USA Today, 25 March, 2003, (23 June, 2007) >http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/movieawards/oscars/2003-03-19-maya_x.htm<Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    This is my own definition extending Lawrence Lessig’s definition of Remix Culture based on the activity of “Rip, Mix and Burn.” Lessig is concerned with copyright issues; my definition of Remix is concerned with aesthetics and its role in political economy. See Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas (New York: Vintage, 2001), 12–15.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    For some good accounts of DJ Culture see Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton, Last Night a DJ Saved my Life (New York: Grover Press, 2000); Ulf Poschardt, DJ Culture (London: Quartet Books, 1998), 193–194; Javier Blánquez, Omar Morera, Editors, Loops: Una historia de la música electrónica (Barcelona: Reservoir Books, 2002).Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    I use the term “spectacular” after Guy Debord’s theory of the Spectacle and Walter Benjamin’s theory of Aura. We can note that the object develops its cultural recognition, not on cult value, but exhibit value (following Benjamin), because it depends on the spectacle (following Debord) for its mass cultural contribution. See Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle (New York: Zone Books, 1995), 110–117; Walter Benjamin, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”, Illuminations (New York, Schocken, 1968), 217–251.Google Scholar
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    Brewster, 2000, 178–79.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    Paid in Full was actually a B-side release meant to complement “Move the Crowd”. Eric B. & Rakim, “Paid in Full,” Re-mix engineer: Derek B., Produced by Eric B. & Rakim, Island Records, 1987.Google Scholar
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    For a good account on the importance of “Pump Up the Volume”, see Poschardt, 1998, DJ Culture.Google Scholar
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    These are citations based on my own travels to different cities; buildings with images can be found in any major city. For information about cigarettes see: Liz Borkowski, “The Face of Chile’s Anti-Tobacco Campaign: The Pump Handle” Posted on 4 January, 2007, http://thepumphandle.word press.com/2007/01/04/the-face-of-chiles-anti-tobacco-campaign/. For an image of the Spider-Hulk see: “The Incredible Hulk Engine of Destruction”, http://www.incrediblehulk.com/spiderhulk.html.Google Scholar
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© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduardo Navas

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