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Elite research in Poland: 1989–1995

  • Jacek Wasilewski

Abstract

For forty years it was Marxism which dominated the social sciences in Poland as well as in the other countries of the Soviet block. More serious studies on elites were not possible. Yet, contrary to the majority of the communist countries in Poland, the absolute domination of Marxist and strict ideological control of the Party over the social sciences lasted for a relatively short time: during the years 1948–55. Later Marxists still had a privileged position, but it became more open, and sometimes even critical towards the regime (revisionism). Orthodox marxism and the orthodox Marxists were removed to the margin of the academic environment, though they still exerted political influence. Non-Marxist theories of society, power, politics and state were present in university curricula, particularly in departments of sociology. Polish sociologists, basing on pre-war traditions and constant contacts with the West (broken only during the Stalinist period), managed to defend their discipline from that intellectual limitation. Theories of stratification, authority, bureaucracy, elites, social mobility, were taught in Polish universities. The works by Weber, Pareto, Mosca, Michels, and Mills were discussed and disputed (e.g. Wesolowski 1962, 1985; Zyromski, 1984; Ortolani 1986), though, apart from a few exceptions, they were not translated into Polish1.

Keywords

Civil Society Political Party Social Movement Political Elite Political Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Bibliography

Recent collective works

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