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Behandlung der PTBS bei Kindern und Jugendlichen

  • Rita RosnerEmail author
  • Jana Gutermann
  • Markus A. Landolt
  • Paul Plener
  • Regina Steil
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Die Definition traumatischer Ereignisse laut DSM-5, ICD-10 und ICD-11 unterscheidet sich nicht wesentlich für Erwachsene, Kinder oder Jugendliche. Eine Ausnahme bildet die DSM-5-Definition für Kinder unter 6 Jahren, bei der die Rolle der Bezugspersonen betont wird. Mehr als die Hälfte aller Kinder und Jugendlichen erleben eines oder mehrere potenziell traumatische Ereignisse [217–219], bevor sie das Erwachsenenalter erreichen. Die Häufigkeit solcher Ereignisse ist in hohem Maße von den sozialen, gesellschaftlichen und umweltbezogenen Rahmenbedingungen abhängig, in welchen das Individuum aufwächst. In Ländern, in denen Bürgerkriege, hohe soziale Ungerechtigkeit oder ein Risiko für Umweltkatastrophen bestehen, sind die Raten für das Erleben traumatischer Ereignisse und in der Folge dann auch für traumabezogene Störungen erhöht. In einer Metaanalyse, die auch Daten aus nicht repräsentativen Studien enthielt, fanden Alisic und Kollegen [220], dass im Durchschnitt 15,9 % der Kinder und Jugendlichen, die einem potenziell traumatischen Ereignis ausgesetzt waren, eine PTBS entwickeln (konditionale Prävalenz). In einer repräsentativen deutschen Studie [143] berichten 25,5 % der männlichen und 17,7 % der weiblichen Befragten (zwischen 14 und 24 Jahren), bereits ein traumatisches Ereignis erlebt zu haben, bei einer PTBS-Lebenszeitprävalenz von 1,3 %. Eine repräsentative Erhebung an US-amerikanischen Jugendlichen im Alter von 13 bis 17 Jahren ergab, dass 62 % der Jugendlichen ein traumatisches Ereignis erlebt hatten und fand eine Lebenszeitprävalenz für eine PTBS von 4,7 % [219]. In einer Schweizer Studie [218] berichteten 56 % der befragten Schüler im Alter zwischen 14 und 16 Jahren, traumatische Ereignisse erlebt zu haben. Die Kriterien für eine aktuelle PTBS nach DSM-IV-Kriterien erfüllten 4,2 % aller Befragten. Mädchen, im Vergleich zu Jungen, waren in allen drei Studien mehr als doppelt so häufig von einer PTBS betroffen.

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Copyright information

© Ingo Schäfer, Ursula Gast, Arne Hofmann, Christine Knaevelsrud, Astrid Lampe, Peter Liebermann, Annett Lotzin, Andreas Maercker, Rita Rosner, Wolfgang Wöller 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita Rosner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jana Gutermann
    • 2
  • Markus A. Landolt
    • 3
  • Paul Plener
    • 4
  • Regina Steil
    • 5
  1. 1.EichstättDeutschland
  2. 2.Frankfurt am MainDeutschland
  3. 3.ZürichSwitzerland
  4. 4.WienÖsterreich
  5. 5.FrankfurtDeutschland

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