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Insurance-Based Managed Care Organisations and Products

  • Volker Eric Amelung
Chapter
Part of the Springer Texts in Business and Economics book series (STBE)

Abstract

The Blue Cross and the Blue Shield health plans were the first health insurance plans in the United States. Together with these insurances, the first health maintenance organisations (HMOs) were also formed in the midst of the Great Depression. Some of the pioneering HMOs include the Kaiser Foundation Health Plans (1937), the Group Health Association (organised by the Home Owner’s Loan Corporation in 1937), the Health Insurance Plan (1944) and the Groups Health Cooperative of Puget Sound (1947). The basic structure of independent practice association (IPA) model HMOs was developed as competition for the group-practice-based HMOs in 1954.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Volker Eric Amelung
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Epidemiology, Social Medicine and Health Systems ResearchHannover Medical SchoolHannoverGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Health Sciences Research INAV GmbHBerlinGermany

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