European memory institutions are repositories of a wealth of rare documents that record public domain content. These documents are often stored in ‘dark-archives’ to which members of the public are granted limited access. Digitisation offers a means by which such public domain content can be made speedily and easily accessible to users around the world, and for this reason, it has been hailed as the harbinger of a new ‘digital renaissance’. This book examines the topical issue of the need to preserve exclusivity over digitised versions of rare documents recording public domain textual content. Based on an empirical survey of business models and funding structures currently employed by European Union memory institutions, it argues for the introduction of exclusive rights in digitised versions of rare documents as a means of incentivising private-sector investment in the digitisation process. It concludes by presenting a detailed proposal for a European Union Regulation that would grant memory institutions a limited-term related right in digitised versions of rare documents held in their collections subject to stringent exceptions and limitations that are designed to safeguard user interests.