Tissue Engineering for the Cartilage Repair of the Ankle

  • Alberto GobbiEmail author
  • Stefan Nehrer
  • Markus Neubauer
  • Katarzyna Herman


Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) are common cause of postresidual pain after ankle injury. The “gold standard” has not been established over the years, which is why a variety of different methods of cartilage lesion treatment have been used. Microfracture and bone marrow stimulation, although offered fast return to sports, had worse results in a long-term follow-up. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) was a next step in treatment of OLTs. However, it is a complex and invasive two-step surgery that requires arthrotomy and, in most of the cases, a medial malleolus osteotomy. Furthermore, the cost of the full procedure is high. The evolution of tissue engineering and scaffold development provided an opportunity to change the surgery technique. A single-stage procedure with the use of hyaluronic acid-based scaffold combined with bone marrow-derived cells has become an alternative to the aforementioned techniques offering a good clinical outcome and satisfactory long-term results.


Osteochondral lesions of the talus Scaffold Bone marrow Bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) Hyaluronan-based scaffold 


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Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Gobbi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stefan Nehrer
    • 2
  • Markus Neubauer
    • 2
  • Katarzyna Herman
    • 1
  1. 1.Orthopaedic Arthroscopic Surgery International (OASI), Bioresearch Foundation Gobbi NPOMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department for Health Sciences, Medicine and Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Center for Health Sciences and MedicineDanube University KremsKremsAustria

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