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Freiheitsbeschränkende und freiheitsentziehende Maßnahmen

  • Tilman Steinert
  • Sophie Hirsch
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Fixierung Festbinden eines Menschen mit breiten Leder- oder Stoffgurten. Fixierung erfolgt am häufigsten im Bett liegend (Bettfixierung), ist grundsätzlich jedoch auch sitzend im Stuhl möglich (Maßnahme in der Gerontopsychiatrie bei Sturzgefährdung). Eine Fixierung kann an unterschiedlich vielen Körperteilen erfolgen, von der Ein-Punkt-Fixierung (nur Bauchgurt) bis zur 11-Punkt-Fixierung (teilweise sogar einschließlich Kopf). Auch das Festhalten eines Menschen ist eine Form der Fixierung (im Englischen „physical restraint“ im Gegensatz zum „mechanical restraint“ mit Gurten). Häufig werden in Studien auch nur Maßnahmen, die es dem Menschen nicht erlauben, eine von ihm gewünschte Körperhaltung einzunehmen (insbesondere Gurte, Stuhltische) als Fixierung bezeichnet (Bleijlevens et al. 2016). Das Bundesverfassungsgericht hat jedenfalls die 5-Punkt- und die 7-Punkt-Fixierung in seinem Urteil vom 24.07.2018 zur Fixierung in der öffentlich-rechtlichen Unterbringung als freiheitsentziehende Maßnahme in Abgrenzung zu nur „freiheitsbeschränkenden“ Maßnahmen definiert und die besondere „Eingriffstiefe“ hervorgehoben (siehe S. 137 f.). Wir verwenden nachfolgend „freiheitsbeschränkende Maßnahmen“ als Oberbegriff und beziehen dabei immer auch die Fixierung als „freiheitsentziehende“ Maßnahme ein.

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Copyright information

© DGPPN (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik und Nervenheilkunde) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tilman Steinert
    • 1
  • Sophie Hirsch
    • 2
  1. 1.WeissenauKlinik fur Psychiatrie und PsychotherapyRavensburgGermany
  2. 2.ZfP WeissenauRavensburgGermany

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