Secondary Obligations: Individual Reparation and Beyond
It has been shown in the foregoing chapters under which conditions States may have positive human rights obligations to actively take reasonable measures of protection and prevention. Certain human rights treaties even explicitly foresee primary obligations that require to address the root causes of gender-based violence, that are gender stereotypes, hierarchies and discrimination in all fields of life. Particularly CEDAW establishes transformative obligations to improve the de facto position of women and to combat stereotypes and hierarchies. Measures aiming at complying with these obligations to fulfill are able to address structural discrimination. However, it is at the discretion of the State to choose the kind of measures to be taken, as long as the measures chosen serve the goal prescribed by the obligation. As State discretion is limited by the principle of proportionality, more precisely, by the prohibition of insufficient action, failure to take any measure is likely to establish a violation of positive duties.