Conflict of Interest
Conflicts of interest lead to bias, which in turn leads to compromised research integrity and quality. Conflicts are not binary; that is, they are not simply either present or absent. They can be more or less severe. The severity of a conflict depends on the likelihood that professional decisions made under the relevant circumstances would be unduly influenced by a secondary interest and the seriousness of the harm or wrong that could result from such influence upon patients and researchers alike. Conflict of interest can present in both financial and intellectual form. Recognition, consequences, and a general approach to management of conflict of interest in medical research are presented in this chapter.
- 1.Australian Research Council. ARC conflict of interests and confidentiality policy Version 2017.1. http://www.arc.gov.au/arc-conflict-interest-and-confidentiality-policy-version-20171.
- 2.Battelle. 2014 Global R&D funding forecast. R&D Magazine. 2013. https://www.battelle.org/docs/default-source/misc/2014-rd-funding-forecast.pdf?sfvrsn=2.
- 8.Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. PART 50—Policies of general applicability. Subpart F—Promoting objectivity in research. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=b17a2b836d6343b5c359269f32ed5ccb&mc=true&node=pt42.1.50&rgn=div5#sp42.1.50.f.
- 9.Guyatt G, Akl EA, Hirsh J, Kearon C, Crowther M, Gutterman D, et al. The vexing problem of guidelines and conflict of interest: a potential solution. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:738–41. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-152-11-201006010-00254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.IOM (Institute of Medicine). Conflict of interest in medical research, education, and practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2009.Google Scholar
- 16.Marcovitch H, Barbour V, Borrell C, Bosch F, Fernández E, Macdonald H, Marusić A, Nylenna M, Esteve Foundation Discussion Group. Conflict of interest in science communication: more than a financial issue. Report from Esteve Foundation Discussion Group, April 2009. Croat Med J. 2010;51:7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Schott G, Pachl H, Limbach U, Gundert-Remy U, Ludwig WD, Lieb K. The financing of drug trials by pharmaceutical companies and its consequences. Part 1: a qualitative, systematic review of the literature on possible influences on the findings, protocols, and quality of drug trials. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010;107:279–85. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2010.0279.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar