A Practical Guide to Writing (and Understanding) a Scientific Paper: Clinical Studies

  • Riccardo Compagnoni
  • Alberto Grassi
  • Stefano Zaffagnini
  • Corrado Bait
  • Kristian Samuelsson
  • Alessandra Menon
  • Pietro Randelli


Writing a scientific paper is a relevant part of the activities of medical doctors and is increasingly important for the progress of medical knowledge. Clinical outcomes can only be improved through research, education, and patient care. All these experiences are shared with the global community, primarily through peer-reviewed research papers, systematic review articles, and meta-analyses. Considering that not that much time is spent on training medical students to write a research manuscript, it, however, appears to be an intimidating process for many medical doctors.

The aim of this paper is to provide tips acquired from authors attempting to help to write good-quality clinical papers without wasting their time and how to publish them in the appropriate journals. We have selected specific topics, which are analyzed in dedicated paragraphs. The different selections are how to choose the topic, find the current literature, analyze the data, structure the paper, write the paper, and handle references and some final tips on how to manage the submission process.


Research Clinical studies Guidelines Literature Submission 


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Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riccardo Compagnoni
    • 1
  • Alberto Grassi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Stefano Zaffagnini
    • 2
    • 3
  • Corrado Bait
    • 4
  • Kristian Samuelsson
    • 5
  • Alessandra Menon
    • 1
  • Pietro Randelli
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.1° Clinica Ortopedica, ASST Centro Specialistico Ortopedico Traumatologico Gaetano Pini-CTOMilanItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche e Neuromotorie, Università di BolognaBolognaItaly
  3. 3.IIa Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologica, Istituto Ortopedico RizzoliBolognaItaly
  4. 4.Istituto Clinico Villa ApricaComoItaly
  5. 5.Department of OrthopaedicsInstitute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  6. 6.Laboratorio di Biomeccanica ed Innovazione Tecnologica, Istituto Ortopedico RizzoliBolognaItaly

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