How to Prepare an Abstract

  • Elmar Herbst
  • Brian Forsythe
  • Avinesh Agarwalla
  • Sebastian KopfEmail author


An abstract is one of the key elements in scientific articles as it is freely available and more frequently read than the entire paper. An abstract serves to briefly illustrate a clear and informative story that disseminates the main message of the study. In general, abstracts of an original article follow the structure of the full manuscript including (1) Introduction, (2) Purpose and Hypotheses, (3) Methods, (4) Results, and (5) Conclusion. The Introduction should highlight the scientific or clinical rationale for the study, while the Methods should clearly and succinctly discuss relevant information necessary to understand the mechanism of the investigation. The main findings and statistical significance should be presented in the Results section, and lastly, the Conclusion highlights the scientific merit of the study. The overall structure and content of the abstract may vary depending on the type of article or journal of submission. In this chapter, we provide an overview as well as some tips and tricks regarding the preparation of abstracts for scientific articles and conferences.


Scientific writing Abstract Tips Tricks Pitfalls 


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Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elmar Herbst
    • 1
  • Brian Forsythe
    • 2
  • Avinesh Agarwalla
    • 2
  • Sebastian Kopf
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Sports MedicineTU MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Midwest Orthopaedics at RushRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Center for Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hospital Brandenburg, Medical School Theodor FontaneBrandenburg an der HavelGermany

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