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Lungenerkrankungen jenseits des Neugeborenenalters

  • Gabriele Hahn

Zusammenfassung

Das Thoraxtrauma ist zwar im Kindesalter selten, jedoch mit einer hohen Mortalität und Morbidität verbunden. Fremdkörperaspirationen sind die häufigsten Unfälle bei Kleinkindern im häuslichen Umfeld und können eine vermehrte oder verminderte Transparenz im Röntgenbild zur Folge haben. Radiologische Befunde des Asthmas bronchiale sind überblähte Lungenareale, Bronchiektasien, Bronchialwandverdickungen und Schleimretentionen. Auch die Zystische Fibrose ist typischerweise durch diese Befunde charakterisiert; langfristig können irreversible Lungenparenchymdestruktionen entstehen. Die wichtigste bildgebende Methodik bei der Diagnostik einer pulmonalen Tuberkulose ist die Röntgenaufnahme. Weitere bakterielle Erreger im Kindesalter sind Streptokokken, Staphylokokken und Hämophilus influenzae. Interstitielle atypische Pneumonien sind oft bei Kindern durch RS-Viren verursacht. Chronische interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen umfassen seltene Pathologien, darunter diffuse Entwicklungsstörungen, alveoläre Wachstumsstörungen und Surfactantdysfunktionen.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav CarusTechnische Universität DresdenDresdenDeutschland

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