Development of the World Cyber Security
At present, cyber security is increasingly threatened by cyber attacks, crime and privacy disclosure, which are penetrating areas like politics, economy, culture and society. All countries are strengthening their attention to cyber security and have taken a series of actions in accordance with their own situation and the world Internet development to improve their capacity of cyber security assurance. (1) Cyber attacks are becoming more hidden but more destructive. Technically peacocking represented by CIH virus, Melissa and Code Red virus are replaced by purposeful and organized attacks represented by Worm.WhBoy.cw, Stuxnet and Ukraine Power Grid Incident. Governmental intervention is being deepened. (2) Web spoofing, DDoS, Trojan and botnet, and cybercrime are the major threats to cyber security. In 2016, at least 255,100 phishing attacks happened worldwide, an increase of over 10% in comparison with the number (230, 300) in 2015. Actually, the number in 2016 was unprecedentedly high. Every year, about 500 million host computers are attacked by botnets, 18 computers per second, resulting in a loss as high as US$110 billion. (3) Advanced persistent threats are becoming increasingly serious with great power of destruction, imperceptibility, durability and complexity, posing great threat to critical infrastructure of finance, business, communication and transportation, and national defense. (4) The number of ransom software attacks is growing explosively. By the end of 2016, such software had evolved into a family-like development mode, with 44,300 new varieties having been discovered and 114 countries having been affected. RaaS is developed into a black industrial chain. From 2016 to 2017, the market scale of the underground market of ransom software saw an increase of 2502%. (5) Large-scale data breach happens frequently, threatening the security of data from governments, businesses and individuals. From 2008 to 2016, over seven billion pieces of online ID information worldwide was embezzled, which indicates that every person’s information is embezzled once. The governmental data of Sweden, Mexico and the Philippines were disclosed, which should arouse the attention of all governmental sectors. (6) With the maturity of IoT and AI, the equipment of IoT and AI may be the major targets of cyber attacks. By the end of 2016, it had been discovered that 2526 control servers had controlled 1.254 million intelligent devices of IoT of the world. Therefore, we should attach equal importance to security and development and take actions in advance to prevent any attack. (7) The United States, Russia, China, Germany and Singapore have launched national cyber security strategies and established special organizations to strengthen the protection of critical infrastructure. They also enhance cyber content security supervision and promote the development of cyber security industries. (8) The position of cyber security has been elevated in the overall national security. Some countries have channeled cyber security into military security to enhance its importance. The United Sates has elevated Cyber Command to be the highest United Combatant Command. Germany and Israel have also founded their cyber commands to improve cyber military fighting capacity, which, at the same time, brings about new factors of instability of cyberspace.