We finally approach the third and final leg of our “three-legged” stool, particularly data analysis. In the remaining chapters of the first half of the book, we will look at inferential and descriptive statistics, but for now, we direct our attention to the latter. Unlike inferential statistics, descriptive statistics does not attempt to make inferences from a sample to the whole population. As its name suggests, descriptive statistics describes, summarizes, or presents the sample and the observations that have been made based on the data collected in an organized manner.
KeywordsDescriptive statistics Tabulation Frequency table Frequency percent (f%) Cumulative frequency (cf) Cumulative frequency percent (cf%) Midpoint Histogram Bar chart Frequency polygon Measures of central tendency Mean Median Mode Measures of variability Range Outliers Interquartile range (IQR) Standard deviation Variance Parameters Statistics Normal distribution Positively skewed (or right-skew) distribution Negatively skewed (or left-skew) distribution Bimodal distribution Polymodal distributions Probability Multiplication rule Independence Addition rule Mutually exclusivity Dependent Conditional rule Bayes theorem Z-score
Frequency tables. Reprint courtesy of International Business Machines Corporation, © International Business Machines Corporation (MOV 79842 kb)
Graphing. Reprint courtesy of International Business Machines Corporation, © International Business Machines Corporation (MOV 75639 kb)
- Klute R. Stylised atom with three Bohr model orbits and stylised nucleus [Stylised atom. Blue dots are electrons, red dots are protons and black dots are neutrons]. 2007. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stylised_atom_with_three_Bohr_model_orbits_and_stylised_nucleus.svg.
- Kolmogorov AN. The theory of probability. In: Alexandrov, A. D., Kolmogorov, A. N., Lavrent'ev, M. A., eds., Mathematics, Its Content, Methods, and Meaning, Vol. 2. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1965.Google Scholar
- Walker JS. Figure 8: Electron cloud model for the 1s orbital. [Digital image]. 2018. http://thebiologyprimer.com/atoms-and-molecules/.
- Perkins J, Wang D. A comparison of Bayesian and frequentist statistics as applied in a simple repeated measures example. J Mod Appl Stat Methods. 2004;3(1):24. https://doi.org/10.22237/jmasm/1083371040. Available at: http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/jmasm/vol3/iss1/24CrossRefGoogle Scholar