Study Design

  • Allen M. Khakshooy
  • Francesco Chiappelli


The composition of the basic principles that act as the foundation of the research process is conceptualized as a three-legged stool. This chapter highlights the first of the three legs of the stool—namely, study design—that acts as the blueprint for researchers to collect, measure, and analyze the data of their health topic of interest. The study design hinges on the research topic of choice.


Diagnostic study Reliability Validity Sensitivity Specificity Prognostic study Observational design Cohort study Incidence Case-control study Odds ratio Relative risk/risk ratio Cross-sectional study Prevalence Experimental study Randomization Clinical trial 


  1. Biddix P. Instrument, validity, reliability. 2009. Accessed July 2017.

Recommended Reading

  1. Chiappelli F. Fundamentals of evidence-based health care and translational science. Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hinkelmann, K., & Kempthorne, O. Introduction to experimental design, design and analysis of experiments, vol. 1. 2nd ed. Hoboken: Wiley; 2008.Google Scholar
  3. Katz DL. Clinical epidemiology & evidence-based medicine: fundamental principles of clinical reasoning & research. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2001.Google Scholar
  4. National Institutes of Health (NIH). (2017, June 21). NIH clinical research trials and you: the basics. Retrieved August 17, 2017, from
  5. Norman GR, Monteiro SD, Sherbino J, Ilgen JS, Schmidt HG, Mamede S. The causes of errors in clinical reasoning: cognitive biases, knowledge deficits, and dual process thinking. Acad Med. 2017;92:23–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allen M. Khakshooy
    • 1
  • Francesco Chiappelli
    • 2
  1. 1.Rappaport Faculty of MedicineTechnion-Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.UCLA School of DentistryLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations