Emotionen im Sport

  • Philip FurleyEmail author
  • Sylvain Laborde


Emotionen spielen eine wichtige Rolle im Sport. Ausgehend von evolutionstheoretischen Überlegungen gibt dieses Kapitel einen aktuellen Überblick über die psychologische und sportpsychologische Emotionsforschung. In dem Kapitel werden das Erleben und die angenommenen Funktionen von Emotionen behandelt sowie der Zusammenhang zwischen der Psychologie und der Physiologie von Emotionen. Anschließend wird ausgehend von Studien, die den Zusammenhang von Emotionen und sportlicher Leistung nahelegen, der Prozess der Emotionsregulation thematisiert. Weiterhin wird auf die jüngere Forschung zur emotionalen Intelligenz im Sport und deren Bedeutung für sportlicher Leistung, Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden eingegangen. Abschließend werden ausführlich aktuelle Methoden der Emotionsforschung beschrieben und die gängigen Methoden der Emotionsinduktion und Messung dargestellt.


  1. Adelmann, P. K., & Zajonc, R. B. (1989). Facial efference and the experience of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 249–280.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Akinola, M., & Mendes, W. B. (2008). The dark side of creativity: Biological vulnerability and negative emotions lead to greater artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1677–1686.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Appelhans, B. M., & Luecken, L. J. (2006). Heart rate variability as an index of regulated emotional responding. Review of General Psychology, 10, 229–240. Scholar
  4. Barlow, A., & Banks, A. P. (2014). Using emotional intelligence in coaching high-performance athletes: a randomised controlled trial. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory Research and Practice, 7, 132–139. Scholar
  5. Beatty, G. F., Cranley, N. M., Carnaby, G., & Janelle, C. M. (2016). Emotions predictably modify response times in the initiation of human motor actions: A meta-analytic review. Emotion, 16(2), 237–251. Scholar
  6. Beaupré, M. G., & Hess, U. (2005). Cross-cultural emotion recognition among Canadian ethnic groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 355–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, J. (24. February 2015). Hard feelings: Science’s struggle to define emotions. The Atlantic.
  8. Bertollo, M., Robazza, C., Falasca, W. N., Stocchi, M., Babiloni, C., Del Percio, C., & Comani, S. (2012). Temporal pattern of pre-shooting psycho-physiological states in elite athletes: A probabilistic approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 91–98. Scholar
  9. Blickle, G., Momm, T., Liu, Y., Witzki, A., & Steinmayr, R. (2011). Construct Validation of the Test of Emotional Intelligence (TEMINT). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27, 282–289. Scholar
  10. Bliss-Moreau, E., Owren, M. J., & Barrett, L. F. (2010). I like the sound of your voice: Affective learning about vocal signals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 557–563.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Booth, A., Shelley, G., Mazur, A., Tharp, G., & Kittok, R. (1989). Testosterone and winning and losing in human competition. Hormones and Behavior, 23, 556–571.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bortoli, L., & Robazza, C. (1994). The motor activity anxiety test. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 79(1 Part 1), 299–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36, 129–148.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Bower, G. H. (1991a). Mood congruity of social judgments. Emotion and Social Judgments, 1991, 31–53.Google Scholar
  15. Bower, G. H. (1991b). Mood congruity of social judgments. In J. P. Forgas (Hrsg.), Emotion and social judgments (S. 31–53). Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (1999). Affective norms for English words (ANEW): Instruction manual and affective ratings. University of Florida: The Center for Research in PsychophysiologyGoogle Scholar
  17. Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2000). Measuring emotion: Behavior, feeling and physiology. In R. Lane & L. Nadel (Hrsg.), Cognitive neuroscience of emotion (S. 242–276). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2007). The International Affective Digitized Sounds (2. Aufl.; IADS-2): Affective ratings of sounds and instruction manual. University of Florida.Google Scholar
  19. Bradley, M. M., Codispoti, M., Cuthbert, B. N., & Lang, P. J. (2001). Emotion and motivation I: Defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing. Emotion, 1, 276–298.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Campo, M., Laborde, S., & Weckemann, S. (2015). Emotional Intelligence training: implications for performance and health. In A. M. Colombus (Hrsg.), Advances in psychology research (S. 75–92). New York: Nova.Google Scholar
  21. Campo, M., Laborde, S., & Mosley, E. (2016). Emotional intelligence training in team sports. Journal of Individual Differences, 37(3), 152–158. Scholar
  22. Camras, L. A. (1992). Expressive development and basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 269–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Camras, L. A., Oster, H., Campos, J. J., Miyake, K., & Bradshaw, D. (1992). Japanese and American infants’ responses to arm restraint. Developmental Psychology, 28, 578–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Camras, L. A., Oster, H., Campos, J., Campos, R., Ujiie, T., Miyake, K., Wang, L., & Meng, Z. (1998). Production of emotional facial expressions in European American, Japanese, and Chinese infants. Developmental Psychology, 34, 616–628.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Carter, L. E., McNeil, D. W., Vowles, K. E., Sorrell, J. T., Turk, C. L., Ries, B. J., & Hopko, D. R. (2002). Effects of emotion on pain reports, tolerance and physiology. Pain Research & Management, 7, 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Castanier, C., LeScanff, C., & Woodman, T. (2011). Mountaineering as affect regulation: The moderating role of self-regulation strategies. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 24, 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Castellano, G., Villalba, S. D., & Camurri, A. (2007). Recognising human emotions from body movement and gesture dynamics. 4738, 71–82.
  28. Coan, J. A., & Allen, J. J. B. (Hrsg.). (2007). Handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment (Bd. 13). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Cohen, D., Nisbett, R. E., Bowdle, B. F., & Schwarz, N. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: An “experimental ethnography”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945–960.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Collet, C., Guillot, A., Bolliet, O., Delhomme, G., & Dittmar, A. (2003). Correlats neurophysiologiques des processus mentaux enregistres en situation reelle par micro-capteurs non invasifs [Neurophysiological correlates of mental processes through non invasive micro-sensors recording in the field]. Science & Sports, 18, 74–85. Scholar
  31. Cooke, A., Kavussanu, M., McIntyre, D., & Ring, C. (2010). Psychological, muscular and kinematic factors mediate performance under pressure. Psychophysiology, 47, 1109–1118. Scholar
  32. Cowen, A. S., & Keltner, D. (2017). Self-report captures 27 distinct categories of emotion bridged by continuous gradients. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114, E7900–E7909. Scholar
  33. Cozolino, L. (2006). The neuroscience of human relationships: Attachment and the developing social brain. New York: WW Norton & Co.Google Scholar
  34. Craft, L. L., Magyar, T. M., Becker, B. J., & Feltz, D. L. (2003). The relationship between the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and sport performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 25, 44–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Crivelli, C., & Fridlund, A. J. (2018, iFirst). Facial displays are tools for social influence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
  36. Crombie, D., Lombard, C., & Noakes, T. D. (2009). Emotional intelligence scores predict team sports performance in a national cricket competition. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 4, 209–224.
  37. Crombie, D., Lombard, C., & Noakes, T. D. (2011). Increasing emotional intelligence in cricketers: An intervention study. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 6, 69–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Daamen, M., & Raab, M. (2012). Psychological assessments in physical exercise. In H. Boecker, et al. (Hrsg.), Functional neuroimaging in exercise and sport sciences. Springer Science+Business Media: New York.Google Scholar
  39. Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  40. Darwin, C. (1998). The expression of the emotions in man and animals (3. Aufl.). London: John Murray. (Erstveröffentlichung 1872).Google Scholar
  41. Davidson, R. J., Jackson, D. C., & Kalin, N. H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 890–909.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Davis, H., Liotti, M., Ngan, E. T., Woodward, T. S., Snellenberg, J. X., Anders, S. M., & Mayberg, H. S. (2008). fMRI BOLD signal changes in elite swimmers while viewing videos of personal failure. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 2, 84–93. Scholar
  43. Davis, P. A., Woodman, T., & Callow, N. (2010). Better out than in: The influence of anger regulation on physical performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 457–460. Scholar
  44. Davis, H., van Anders, S., Ngan, E., Woodward, T. S., Snellenberg, J. X. V., Mayberg, H. S., & Liotti, M. (2012). Neural, mood, and endocrine responses in elite athletes relative to successful and failed performance videos. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 6, 6–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dawson, M. E., Schell, A. M., & Filion, D. L. (2000). The electrodermal system. In J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson (Hrsg.), Handbook of psychophysiology (2. Aufl., S. 200–223). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Denson, T. F., Spanovic, M., & Miller, N. (2009a). Cognitive appraisals and emotions predict cortisol and immune responses: A meta-analysis of acute laboratory social stressors and emotion inductions. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 823–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Denson, T. F., Spanovic, M., & Miller, N. (2009b). Stress and specificity: Reply to Miller. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 857–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. DeSteno, D., Valdesolo, P., & Bartlett, M. Y. (2006). Jealousy and the threatened self: Getting to the heart of the green-eyed monster. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 626–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dimberg, U., Thunberg, M., & Elmehed, K. (2000). Unconscious facial reactions to emotional facial expressions. Psychological Science, 11, 86–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Duclos, S. E., Laird, J. D., Schneider, E., Sexter, M., Stern, L., & Van Lighten, O. (1989). Emotion-specific effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 100–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dunbar, R. I. (1993). Coevolution of neocortical size, group size and language in humans. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 681–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Eich, E. (1995). Searching for mood dependent memory. Psychological Science, 6, 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Eich, E., & Macaulay, D. (2000). Are real moods required to reveal mood-congruent and mood-dependent memory? Psychological Science, 11, 244–248.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Eich, E., & Metcalfe, J. (1989). Mood dependent memory for internal versus external events. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 15, 443–455.Google Scholar
  55. Ekkekakis, P., Hall, E. E., & Petruzzello, S. J. (2005). Evaluation of the circumplex structure of the activation deactivation adjective check list before and after a short walk. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 83–101. Scholar
  56. Ekkekakis, P., Parfitt, G., & Petruzzello, S. J. (2011). The pleasure and displeasure people feel when they exercise at different intensities: Progress towards a tripartite rationale for exercise intensity prescription. Sports Medicine, 41, 641–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ekman, P. (1994). Strong evidence for universals in facial expression: A reply to Russell’s mistaken critique. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 268–287.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Ekman, P. (2007). Emotions revealed: Recognizing faces and feelings to improve communication and emotional life. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.Google Scholar
  60. Ekman, P. (2016). What scientists who study emotion agree about. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11, 31–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Ekman, P., & Cordaro, D. (2011). What is meant by calling emotions basic. Emotion Review, 3, 364–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ekman, P., & Davidson, R. J. (1993). Voluntary smiling changes regional brain activity. Psychological Science, 4, 342–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1978). The Facial Action Coding System (FACS): A technique for measurement of facial movement. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  64. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1986). A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 10, 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Filaire, E., Duché, P., Lac, G., & Robert, A. (1996). Saliva cortisol, physical exercise and training: Influences of swimming and handball on cortisol concentrations in women. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 74, 274–278.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Filaire, E., Le Scanff, C., Duche, F., & Lac, G. (1999). The relationship between salivary adrenocortical hormones changes and personality in elite female athletes during handball and volleyball competition. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 297–302.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Filaire, E., Maso, F., Sagnol, M., Ferrand, C., & Lac, G. (2001). Anxiety, hormonal responses, and coping during a judo competition. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fiori, M., Antonietti, J. P., Mikolajczak, M., Luminet, O., Hansenne, M., & Rossier, J. (2014). What is the Ability Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) good for? An evaluation using item response theory. PLoS ONE, 9, 1–11. Scholar
  69. Forgas, J. (2006). Affect in social thinking and behavior. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  70. Fridlund, A. J. (1994). Human facial expression: An evolutionary view. San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  71. Furley, P., & Dicks, M. (2012). “Hold your head high”. The influence of emotional versus neutral nonverbal expressions of dominance and submissiveness in baseball. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 43, 294–311.Google Scholar
  72. Furley, P., & Schweizer, G. (2014a). “I’m pretty sure that we will win!” The influence of score-related nonverbal behavioral changes on the confidence in winning a basketball game. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 35, 316–320.Google Scholar
  73. Furley, P., & Schweizer, G. (2014b). The expression of victory and loss: Estimating who’s leading or trailing from nonverbal cues in sports. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 38, 13–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Furley, P., & Schweizer, G. (2016). In a flash: Thin slice judgment accuracy of leading and trailing in sports. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 40, 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Furley, P., Dicks, M., & Memmert, D. (2012a). Nonverbal behavior in soccer: The influence of dominant and submissive body language on the impression formation and expectancy of success of soccer players. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 34, 61–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Furley, P., Dicks, M., Stendtke, F., & Memmert, D. (2012b). „Get it out the way. The wait’s killing me.“ Hastening and hiding during soccer penalty kicks. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 454–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Furley, P., Moll, T., & Memmert, D. (2015a). Put your hands up in the air? The interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions on opponents and teammates. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1361. Scholar
  78. Furley, P., Schweizer, G., & Bertrams, A. (2015b). The two modes of an athlete: Dual-process theories in the field of sport. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 8, 106–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gendron, M., Crivelli, C., & Barrett, L. F. (2018). Universality reconsidered: Diversity in making meaning of facial expressions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(4), 211–219.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Gilligan, S. G., & Bower, G. H. (1983). Reminding and mood-congruent memory. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 21, 431–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1995). Emotion elicitation using films. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 87–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gutrecht, J. A. (1994). Sympathetic skin response. Journal of Clinical Neurophysioly, 11, 519–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hanin, Y. (2000). Emotions in sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  85. Hanin, Y. L. (2007). Emotions in sport: Current issues and perspectives. In G. Tenenbaum & R. C. Eklund (Hrsg.), Handbook of sport psychology (3. Aufl., S. 3358). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  86. Hardy, C. J., & Rejeski, W. J. (1989). Not what, but how one feels: The measurement of affect during exercise. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11, 304–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1993). Emotional contagion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 96–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hopkins, M. M., Hanin, Y., Chan, J. T., & Mallett, C. J. (2011). The value of emotional intelligence for high performance coaching. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 6, 333–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Isen, A. M. (1987). Positive affect, cognitive processes, and social behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 203–253.Google Scholar
  90. Izard, C. E. (1993). Four systems for emotion activation: Cognitive and noncognitive processes. Psychological Review, 100, 68–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Izard, C. E. (1994). Innate and universal facial expressions: Evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 288–299.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  93. Jokela, M., & Hanin, Y. (1999a). Does the individual zones of optimal functioning model discriminate between successful and less successful athletes? A meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 873–887. Scholar
  94. Jokela, M., & Hanin, Y. L. (1999b). Does the individual zones of optimal functioning model discriminate between successful and less successful athletes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 873–887.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Jones, M. V., Lane, M., Bray, S., Uphill, M., & Catlin, J. (2005). Development and validation of the sport emotion questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 27, 407–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Jordet, G. (2009). Why do English players fail in soccer penalty shootouts? A study of team status, self-regulation, and choking under pressure. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27, 97–106.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Jordet, G., & Hartman, E. (2008). Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 450–457.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Kirschbaum, C., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2000). Salivary cortisol. In G. Fink (Hrsg.), Encyclopedia of stress (S. 379–383). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  99. Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K. M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The “trier social stress test” – A tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28, 76–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kotsou, I., Nelis, D., Grégoire, J., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Emotional plasticity: Conditions and effects of improving emotional competence in adulthood. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 827–839.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Laborde, S., & Raab, M. (2013). The tale of hearts and reason: The influence of mood on decision making. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35, 339–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Laborde, S., Brüll, A., Weber, J., & Anders, L. S. (2011). Trait emotional intelligence in sports: A protective role against stress through heart rate variability? Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 23–27. Scholar
  103. Laborde, S., You, M., Dosseville, F., & Salinas, A. (2012). Culture, individual differences, and situation: Influence on coping in French and Chinese table tennis players. European Journal of Sport Science, 12, 255–261. Scholar
  104. Laborde, S., Dosseville, F., Guillén, F., & Chávez, E. (2014a). Validity of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire in sports and its links with performance satisfaction. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 481–490. Scholar
  105. Laborde, S., Lautenbach, F., Allen, M. S., Herbert, C., & Achtzehn, S. (2014b). The role of trait emotional intelligence in emotion regulation and performance under pressure. Personality and Individual Differences, 57, 43–47. Scholar
  106. Laborde, S., Raab, M., & Kinrade, N. P. (2014c). Is the ability to keep your mind sharp under pressure reflected in your heart? Evidence for the neurophysiological bases of decision reinvestment. Biological Psychology, 100C, 34–42. Scholar
  107. Laborde, S., Furley, P., & Schempp, C. (2015a). The relationship between working memory, reinvestment, and heart rate variability. Physiology & Behavior, 139, 430–436. Scholar
  108. Laborde, S., Lautenbach, F., & Allen, M. S. (2015b). The contribution of coping-related variables and heart rate variability to visual search performance under pressure. Physiology & Behavior, 139, 532–540. Scholar
  109. Laborde, S., Dosseville, F., & Allen, M. S. (2016a). Emotional intelligence in sport and exercise: A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 26, 862–874. Scholar
  110. Laborde, S., Dosseville, F., Wolf, S., Martin, T., & You, M. (2016b). Consequences and antecedents of debilitative precompetitive emotions. Psychologie Française, 61(4), 303–317. Scholar
  111. Laborde, S., Guillén, F., & Watson, M. (2017). Trait emotional intelligence questionnaire full-form and short-form versions: Links with sport participation frequency and duration and type of sport practiced. Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 5–9. Scholar
  112. LaCaille, L., Patino-Fernandez, A. M., Monaco, J., Ding, D., Upchurch Sweeney, C. R., Butler, C. D., et al. (2013). Electrodermal Activity (EDA) (S. 666–669).
  113. Lang, P. J., & Bradley, M. M. (2010). Emotion and the motivational brain. Biological Psychology, 84, 437–450. Scholar
  114. Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2008). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical report A-8.Google Scholar
  115. Lautenbach, F., Laborde, S., Achtzehn, S., & Raab, M. (2014). Preliminary evidence of salivary cortisol predicting performance in a controlled setting. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 42, 218–224.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Lautenbach, F., Laborde, S., Klampfl, M., & Achtzehn, S. (2015a). A link between cortisol and performance: An exploratory case study of a tennis match. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98, 167–173. Scholar
  117. Lautenbach, F., Laborde, S., Mesagno, C., Lobinger, B. H., Achtzehn, S., & Arimond, F. (2015b). Nonautomated pre-performance routine in tennis: An intervention study. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 27(2), 123–131. Scholar
  118. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46, 819–834.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  120. Lazarus, R. S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 229–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lazarus, R. S., & Lazarus, B. N. (1994). Pasion and reason: Making sense of our emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Levenson, R. W. (2003). Blood, sweat, and fears – The autonomic architecture of emotion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1000, 348–366. Scholar
  123. Levenson, R. W., Ekman, P., Heider, K., & Friesen, W. V. (1992). Emotion and autonomic nervous system activity in the Minangkabau of West Sumatra. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 972–988.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Leventhal, H. (1980). Toward a comprehensive theory of emotion. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 139–207.Google Scholar
  125. Li, S., Cui, L., Zhu, C., Li, B., Zhao, N., & Zhu, T. (2016). Emotion recognition using Kinect motion capture data of human gaits. PeerJ, 4, e2364. Scholar
  126. Lucidi, F., Robazza, C., Bertollo, M., Ruiz, M. C., & Bortoli, L. (2016). Measuring psychobiosocial states in sport: Initial validation of a trait measure. PLoS ONE, 11(12), e0167448. Scholar
  127. Malik, M. (1996). Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. task force of the European society of cardiology and the North American society of pacing and electrophysiology. European Heart Journal, 17, 354–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., Burton, D., Bump, L., & Smith, D. E. (1990). Development and validation of the competitive sports anxiety inventory-2. In R. Martens, R. S. Vealey, & D. Burton (Hrsg.), Competitive anxiety in sport (S. 127–173). Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  129. Martinent, G., Ferrand, C., Guillet, E., & Gautheur, S. (2010). Validation of the French version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) including frequency and direction scales. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Matsumoto, D., & Ekman, P. (1988). Japanese and Caucasian facial expressions of emotion and neutral faces (JACFEE and JACNeuF). Human Interaction Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco, S. 401.Google Scholar
  131. Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. S. (2012). Evidence for a nonverbal expression of triumph. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 520–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mauss, I. B., & Robinson, M. D. (2009). Measures of emotion: A review. Cognition and Emotion, 23(2), 209–237. Scholar
  133. Maxwell, J. P., & Moores, E. (2007). The development of a short scale measuring aggressiveness and anger in competitive athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 179–193. Scholar
  134. Maxwell, J. P., & Visek, A. (2009). Unsanctioned aggression in rugby union: Relationships among aggressiveness, anger, athletic identity, and professionalization. Aggressive Behavior, 35(3), 237–243. Scholar
  135. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2002). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT): User’s manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems Inc.Google Scholar
  136. Mayr, E. (1974). Behavior programs and evolutionary strategies. American Scientist, 62, 650–659.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Profile of Mood State manual. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.Google Scholar
  138. Mesquita, B., & Frijda, N. H. (1992). Cultural variations in emotions: a review. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 179–204.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Moll, T., Jordet, G., & Pepping, G.-J. (2010). Emotional contagion in soccer penalty shootouts: Celebration of individual success is associated with ultimate team success. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 983–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Moya-Albiol, L., Salvador, A., Costa, R., Martínez-Sanchis, S., González-Bono, E., Ricarte, J., & Arnedo, M. (2001). Psychophysiological responses to the Stroop Task after a maximal cycle ergometry in elite sportsmen and physically active subjects. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 40, 47–59.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Nelis, D., Quoidbach, J., Mikolajczak, M., & Hansenne, M. (2009). Increasing emotional intelligence: (How) is it possible? Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 36–41. Scholar
  142. Nelis, D., Kotsou, I., Quoidbach, J., Hansenne, M., Weytens, F., Dupuis, P., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Increasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships, and employability. Emotion, 11, 354–366. Scholar
  143. Niskanen, J. P., Tarvainen, M. P., Ranta-Aho, P. O., & Karjalainen, P. A. (2004). Software for advanced HRV analysis. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 76, 73–81. Scholar
  144. Norman, G. J., Hawkley, L. C., Cole, S. W., Berntson, G. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). Social neuroscience: The social brain, oxytocin, and health. Social Neuroscience, 7, 18–29.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Öhman, A., Flykt, A., & Esteves, F. (2001). Emotion drives attention: Detecting the snake in the grass. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 466–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Olatunji, B. O., Babson, K. A., Smith, R. C., Feldner, M. T., & Connolly, K. M. (2009). Gender as a moderator of the relation between PTSD and disgust: A laboratory test employing individualized script-driven imagery. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 1091–1097.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Oudejans, R. R., & Pijpers, J. R. (2010). Training with mild anxiety may prevent choking under higher levels of anxiety. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 44–50. Scholar
  148. Park, J. L., Fairweather, M. M., & Donaldson, D. I. (2015). Making the case for mobile cognition: EEG and sports performance. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 52, 117–130. Scholar
  149. Parkinson, B. (1996). Emotions are social. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 663–683.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Perlini, A. H., & Halverson, T. R. (2006). Emotional intelligence in the National Hockey League. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 38, 109–119. Scholar
  151. Petrides, K. V. (2009a). Psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Hrsg.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications (S. 85–101). New York: Springer Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Petrides, K. V. (2009b). Technical manual for the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). London, England: London Psychometric Laboratory.Google Scholar
  153. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2003). Trait emotional intelligence: Behavioural validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. European Journal of Personality, 17, 39–57. Scholar
  154. Philippot, P. (1993). Inducing and assessing differentiated emotion-feeling states in the laboratory. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 171–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Pijpers, J. R., Oudejans, R. R., Holsheimer, F., & Bakker, F. C. (2003). Anxiety-performance relationships in climbing: A process-oriented approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 4, 283–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Pijpers, J. R., Oudejans, R. R., & Bakker, F. C. (2005). Anxiety-induced changes in movement behaviour during the execution of a complex whole-body task. The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. A, Human experimental psychology, 58, 421–445. Scholar
  157. Quigley, K. S., Lindquist, K. A., & Barrett, L. F. (2013). Inducing and measuring emotion: Tips, tricks, and secrets. In H. T. Reis & C. M. Judd (Hrsg.), Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology (S. 220–250). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rada, H., Dittmar, A., Delhomme, G., Collet, C., Roure, R., Vernet-Maury, E., & Priez, A. (1995). Bioelectric and microcirculaiton cutaneous sensors for the study of vigilance and emotional response during tasks and tests. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 10, 7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rathschlag, M., & Memmert, D. (2013). The influence of self-generated emotions on physical performance: An investigation of happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35, 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rathschlag, M., & Memmert, D. (2014). Self-generated emotions and their influence on sprint performance: An investigation of happiness and anxiety. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 27(2), 186–199. Scholar
  161. Ratner, C. (2000). A cultural-psychological analysis of emotions. Culture & Psychology, 6, 5–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Ring, C., Cooke, A., Kavussanu, M., McIntyre, D., & Masters, R. (2014). Investigating the efficacy of neurofeedback training for expediting expertise and excellence in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise.
  163. Ring, C., Kavussanu, M., & Willoughby, A. (2016). Pain thresholds, pain-induced frontal alpha activity and pain-related evoked potentials are associated with antisocial behavior and aggressiveness in athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 303–311. Scholar
  164. Riva, G., Mantovani, F., Capideville, C. S., Preziosa, A., Morganti, F., et al. (2007). Affective interactions using virtual reality: The link between presence and emotions. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 10, 45–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Robazza, C., Bortoli, L., Carraro, A., & Bertollo, M. (2006). „I wouldn’t do it; it looks dangerous“: Changing students’ attitudes and emotions in physical education. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 767–777. Scholar
  166. Ruiz, M. C., & Hanin, Y. L. (2004). Metaphoric description and individualized emotion profiling of performance related states in high-level karate athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Russell, J. A., Weiss, A., & Mendelsohn, G. A. (1989). Affect grid: A single-item scale of pleasure and arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 493–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Rutledge, L. L., & Hupka, R. B. (1985). The facial feedback hypothesis: Methodological concerns and new supporting evidence. Motivation and Emotion, 9, 219–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Ryan, C., Furley, P., & Mulhall, K. (2016). Judgments of nonverbal behaviour by children with high-functioning Autism Spectrum disorder: Can they detect signs of winning and losing from brief video clips? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 16–23.Google Scholar
  170. Saklofske, D. H., Austin, E. J., Galloway, J., & Davidson, K. (2007a). Individual difference correlates of health-related behaviours: Preliminary evidence for links between emotional intelligence and coping. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 491–502. Scholar
  171. Saklofske, D. H., Austin, E. J., Rohr, B. A., & Andrews, J. J. W. (2007b). Personality, emotional intelligence and exercise. Journal of health psychology, 12, 937–948. Scholar
  172. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sanchez-Lopez, J., Silva-Pereyra, J., & Fernandez, T. (2016). Sustained attention in skilled and novice martial arts athletes: A study of event-related potentials and current sources. PeerJ, 4, e1614. Scholar
  174. Schachter, J., & Singer, J. E. (1962). Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69, 379–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Schaefer, A., Nils, F., Sanchez, X., & Philippot, P. (2010). Assessing the effectiveness of a large database of emotion-eliciting films: A new tool for emotion researchers. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 1153–1172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Scherer, K. R. (2005). What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Social Science Information, 44, 695–729. Scholar
  177. Seligman, M. E., Railton, P., Baumeister, R. F., & Sripada, C. (2016). Homo Prospectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  178. Serrano, J. M., Iglesias, J., & Loeches, A. (1992). Visual discrimination and recognition of facial expressions of anger, fear, and surprise in 4-to 6-month-old infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 25, 411–425.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. Serrano, J. M., Iglesias, J., & Loeches, A. (1995). Infants’ responses to adult static facial expressions. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 477–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Shariff, A. F., & Tracy, J. L. (2011). What are emotion expressions for? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 395–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Simon-Thomas, E. R., Keltner, D., Sauter, D., Sinicropi-Yao, L., & Abramson, A. (2009). The voice conveys specific emotions: Evidence from vocal burst displays. Emotion, 9, 838–846.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. Slovic, P., Finucane, M. L., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2007). The affect heuristic. European Journal of Operational Research, 177, 1333–1352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., Cumming, S. P., & Grossbard, J. R. (2006). Measurement of multidimensional sport performance anxiety in children and adults: The sport anxiety scale-2. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 28, 479–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Solanki, D., & Lane, A. M. (2010). Relationships between exercise as a mood regulation strategy and trait emotional intelligence. Asian journal of sports medicine, 1, 195–200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Stepper, S., & Strack, F. (1993). Proprioceptive determinants of emotional and nonemotional feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 211–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sterelny, K. (2012). The evolved apprentice. Cambridge: MIT press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Stevenson, R. A., Mikels, J. A., & James, T. W. (2007). Characterization of the affective norms for english words by discrete emotional categories. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 1020–1024.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. Strack, F., Martin, L. L., & Stepper, S. (1988). Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: a nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis. Journal of personality and social psychology, 54, 768–777.Google Scholar
  189. Strahler, K., Ehrlenspiel, F., Heene, M., & Brand, R. (2010). Competitive anxiety and cortisol awakening response in the week leading up to a competition. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 148–154. Scholar
  190. Syrjä, P., & Hanin, Y. (1998). Individualized and group-oriented measures of emotion in sport: A comparative study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 16, 398–399.Google Scholar
  191. Teachman, B. A. (2007). Evaluating implicit spider fear associations using the Go/No-go Association Task. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38, 156–167.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., & Fogarty, G. J. (2003). Construct validity of the profile of mood states – Adolescents for use with adults. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 4, 125–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Thayer, J. F., Hansen, A. L., Saus-Rose, E., & Johnsen, B. H. (2009). Heart rate variability, prefrontal neural function, and cognitive performance: The neurovisceral integration perspective on self-regulation, adaptation, and health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 141–153. Scholar
  194. Thayer, R. E. (1989). The biopsychology of mood and arousal. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  195. Thelwell, R. C., Lane, A. M., Weston, N. J. V., & Greenlees, L. A. (2008). Examining relationships between emotional intelligence and coaching efficacy. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 6, 224–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Tomkins, S. S. (1962). Affect, imagery, consciousness: Bd. 1. The positive affects. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  197. Tomkins, S. S. (1981). The quest for primary motives: Biography and autobiography of an idea. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 306–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Totterdell, P. (2000). Catching moods and hitting runs: Mood linkage and subjective performance in professional sport teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 848–859.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Tracy, J. L., & Matsumoto, D. (2008). The spontaneous expression of pride and shame: Evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 11655–11660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Tremayne, P., & Barry, R. J. (1988). An application of psychophysiology in sports psychology: Heart rate responses to relevant and irrelevant stimuli as a function of anxiety and defensiveness in elite gymnasts. International Journal of Psychophysioly, 6(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Van Kleef, G. (2009). How emotions regulate social life: The Emotions as Social Information (EASI) model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 184–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Van Kleef, G. A., Van Doorn, E. A., Heerdink, M. W., & Koning, L. F. (2011). Emotion is for influence. European Review of Social Psychology, 22, 114–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Velten, E. (1968). A laboratory task for induction of mood states. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 6, 473–482.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. Venables, P. H., & Christie, M. J. (1980). Electrodermal activity. In I. Martin & P. H. Venables (Hrsg.), Techniques in psychophysiology (S. 3–67). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  205. Vernazza-Martin, S., Longuet, S., Damry, T., Chamot, J. M., & Dru, V. (2015). When locomotion is used to interact with the environment: Investigation of the link between emotions and the twofold goal-directed locomotion in humans. Experimental Brain Research, 233(10), 2913–2924. Scholar
  206. Warwick, J., Nettelbeck, T., & Ward, L. (2010). AEIM: A new measure and method of scoring abilities-based emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 66–71. Scholar
  207. Watson, D., Clark, L. A. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063. Scholar
  208. Wilson, M. R., Vine, S. J., & Wood, G. (2009). The influence of anxiety on visual attentional control in basketball free throw shooting. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31, 152–168.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. Wilson-Mendenhall, C. D., Barrett, L. F., Simmons, W. K., & Barsalou, L. W. (2011). Grounding emotion in situated conceptualization. Neuropsychologia, 49, 1105–1127.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. Wolf, S. A., Evans, M. B., Laborde, S., & Kleinert, J. (2015). Assessing what generates precompetitive emotions: Development of the precompetitive appraisal measure. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(6), 579–587. Scholar
  211. Woodman, T., Davis, P. A., Hardy, L., Callow, N., Glasscock, I., & Yuill-Proctor, J. (2009). Emotions and sport performance: An exploration of happiness, hope, and anger. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 169–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Zajonc, R. B. (2000). Feeling and thinking: Closing the debate over the independence of affect. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  213. Zhao, D., Gu, R., Tang, P., Yang, Q., & Luo, Y. J. (2016). Incidental emotions influence risk preference and outcome evaluation. Psychophysiology, 53(10), 1542–1551. Scholar
  214. Zizzi, S. J., Deaner, H. R., & Hirschhorn, D. K. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and performance among college basketball players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 262–269. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychologisches InstitutDeutsche Sporthochschule KölnKölnDeutschland
  2. 2.Psychologisches Institut Abteilung LeistungspsychologieDeutsche Sporthochschule KölnKölnDeutschland

Personalised recommendations