Advertisement

Vaginale intraepitheliale Neoplasie (VaIN)

  • Sven Ackermann
  • Christian Dannecker
  • Lars-Christian Horn
  • Hans-Georg Schnürch
  • Peer Hantschmann
  • Agnieszka Denecke
  • Karl Ulrich Petry
  • Grit Mehlhorn
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Die Häufigkeit der VaIN ist nicht genau bekannt: Für Deutschland werden 100–200 Fälle pro Jahr geschätzt. Als Risikofaktoren werden HPV-Infektion, Immuninsuffizienz und Nikotinabusus genannt. Als Primärprävention ist ein Effekt von der HPV-Impfung zu erwarten. Früherkennung ist nur möglich durch positive Zytologien bei unauffälliger oder fehlender Zervix. Therapiegrundlage ist die histologische Sicherung und die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik durch Differenzialkolposkopie. Therapiebedürftig sind die VaIN 2/3. Bei der Therapie kommen sowohl lokal medikamentöse Applikationen zum Einsatz als auch operative Verfahren. Die Brachytherapie ist in Deutschland wegen der ausgeprägten Nebenwirkungen nicht verbreitet. Als operative Verfahren werden die Laservaporisation und die Exzision mittels Skalpell oder Laserskalpell eingesetzt. Wegen der fehlenden Einsehbarkeit im oberen Scheidendrittel, insbesondere nach Hysterektomie, wird dort die Scheidenkuppelresektion als Vollhautexision oder Skinning-Verfahren empfohlen. Die klinische/zytologische Nachsorge sollte lebenslang erfolgen.

Literatur

Literatur zu Abschn. 8.1

  1. Cheng D, NgTY Ngan HY, Wong LC (1999) Wide local excision (WLE) for vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN). Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 78:648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Conley LJ et al (2002) HIV-1 infection and risk of vulvovaginal and perianal condylomata acuminata and intraepithelial neoplasia: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 359:108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Henderson D, Taron R (1977) An epidemiologic study of cancer of the cervix, vagina, and vulva based on the Third National Cancer Survey in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 129:525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Nwabineli NJ, Monaghan JM (1991) Vaginal epithelial abnormalities in patients with CIN: clinical and pathological features and management. Br J Obstet Gynecol 98:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Sherman JF et al (2008) Smoking increases the risk of high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia in women with oncogenic human papillomavirus. Gynecol Oncol 110:396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Sillman FH et al (1997) The relationship between human papillomavirus and lower genital intraepithelial neoplasia in immunosuppressed women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 176:93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sugase M, Matsukara T (1997) Distinct manifestations of human papillomaviruses in the vagina. Int J Cancer 72:412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Watson M, Saraiya M, Wu X (2009) Update of HPV-associated female genital cancers in the United States, 1999–2004. J Womens Health 18:1731CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Literatur zu Abschn. 8.2

  1. Garland SM, Hernandez-Avila M, Wheeler CM et al (2007) Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent anogenital diseases. N Engl J Med 356:1928–1943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Insinga RP, Liaw KL, Johnson LG, Madeleine MM (2008) A systematic review of the prevalence and attribution of human papillomavirus types among cervical, vaginal, and vulvar precancers and cancers in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 17:1611–1622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Joura EA, Leodolter S, Hernandez-Avila M et al (2007) Efficacy of a quadrivalent prophylactic human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine against high-grade vulval and vaginal lesions: a combined analysis of three randomised clinical trials. Lancet 369:702–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Joura EA, Garland SM, Paavonen J et al (2012) Effect of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in a subgroup of women with cervical and vulvar disease: retrospective pooled analysis of trial data. BMJ 344:e1401PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kjaer SK, Sigurdsson K, Iversen OE et al (2009) A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (Types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions. Cancer Prev Res 2:868–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Olsson SE, Kjaer SK, Sigurdsson K et al (2009) Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection. Human Vaccines 5:696–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sherman JF, Mount SL, Evans MF, Skelly J, Simmons-Arnold L, Eltabbakh GH (2008) Smoking increases the risk of high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia in women with oncogenic human papillomavirus. Gynecol Oncol 110:396–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Smith JS, Backes DM, Hoots BE, Kurman RJ, Pimenta JM (2009) Human papillomavirus type-distribution in vulvar and vaginal cancers and their associated precursors. Obstet Gynecol 113:917–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Literatur zu Abschn. 8.3

  1. Akgul M, Bomeisl PB, MacLennan GT (2015) Extravesical pagetoid spread of urothelial carcinoma in situ. A report of five cases. Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol 37 (6): 364–368Google Scholar
  2. Alemany L, Saunier M, Tinoco L, Quirós B, Alvarado-Cabrero I, Alejo M, Joura EA, Maldonado P, Klaustermeier J, Salmerón J, Bergeron C, Petry KU, Guimerà N, Clavero O, Murillo R, Clavel C, Wain V, Geraets DT, Jach R, Cross P, Carrilho C, Molina C, Shin HR, Mandys V, Nowakowski AM, Vidal A, Lombardi L, Kitchener H, Sica AR, Magaña-León C, Pawlita M, Quint W, Bravo IG, Muñoz N, de Sanjosé S, Bosch FX; HPV VVAP Study Group (2014) Large contribution of human papillomavirus in vaginal neoplastic lesions: a worldwide study in 597 samples. Eur J Cancer 50(16):2846–2854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Darragh TM, Colgan TJ, Thomas Cox J, Heller DS, Henry MR, Luff RD, McCalmont T, Nayar R, Palefsky JM, Stoler MH, Wilkinson EJ, Zaino RJ, Wilbur DC; Members of the LAST Project Work Groups (2013) The Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology Standardization Project for HPV-associated lesions: background and consensus recommendations from the College of American Pathologists and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Int J Gynecol Pathol 32(1):76–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Diakomanolis E, Stefanidis K, Rodolakis A, Haidopoulos D, Sindos M, Chatzipappas I, Michalas S (2002) Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: report of 102 cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 23(5):457–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ferenczy AS, Colgan TJ, Herrington CS, Hisrchowitz L, Löning T, Park KJ, Stoler M, Wells M, Wilbur DC, Wright T (2014) Epithelial tumors of the vagina. In: Kurman RJ, Carcangiou ML, Herrington S, Young RH (Hrsg) WHO classification of tumours of femal reproductive organs. IARC Press, Lyon, S 210–217Google Scholar
  6. Gadducci A, Fabrini MG, Lanfredini N, Sergiampietri C (2015) Squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina: natural history, treatment modalities and prognostic factors. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 93(3):211–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Griesser H, Marquardt K, Jordan B, Kühn W, Neis K, Neumann HH, Bollmann R, Pöschel B, Steiner M, Schenck U (2013) Münchner Nomenklatur III. Frauenarzt 54:1042–1048Google Scholar
  8. Hampl M, Wentzensen N, Vinokurova S, von Knebel-Doeberitz M, Poremba C, Bender HG, Kueppers V (2007) Comprehensive analysis of 130 multicentric intraepithelial female lower genital tract lesions by HPV typing and p16 expression profile. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 133(4):235–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Höckel M, Horn LC, Illig R, Dornhöfer N, Fritsch H (2011) Ontogenetic anatomy of the distal vagina: relevance for local tumor spread and implications for cancer surgery. Gynecol Oncol 122(2):313–318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Horn LC, Brambs CE, Handzel R, Mehlhorn G, Schmidt D, Schierle K (2016) Nomenclature of squamous cell precursor lesions of the lower female genital tract: current aspects. Pathologe 37(6):526–533PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lu B, Liang Y (2015) Pagetoid spread of bladder urothelial carcinoma to the vagina and vulva. J Low Genit Tract Dis 19(1):e13–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mahdi H, Thrall M, Agoff N, Doherty M (2011) Pagetoid adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix with pagetoid spread into the vagina. Obstet Gynecol 118(2 Pt 2):461–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ratnavelu N, Patel A, Fisher AD, Galaal K, Cross P, Naik R (2013) High-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: Can we be selective about who we treat? BJOG 120(7):887–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Seifried S, Haydu LE, Quinn MJ, Scolyer RA, Stretch JR, Thompson JF (2015) Melanoma of the vulva and vagina: principles of staging and their relevance to management based on a clinicopathologic analysis of 85 cases. Ann Surg Oncol 22(6):1959–1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Srodon M, Stoler MH, Baber GB, Kurman RJ (2006) The distribution of low and high-risk HPV types in vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and VaIN). Am J Surg Pathol 30(12):1513–1518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zhang L, Li Q, Zhao M, Jia L, Zhang Y (2015) Discrepancies between biopsy-based and excision-based grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: the important role of time between excision and biopsy. Int J Gynecol Pathol 34(3):221–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Literatur zu Abschn. 8.4

  1. Benedet JL, Sanders BH (1984) Carcinoma in situ of the vagina. Am J Obstet Gynecol 148(5):695–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gallup DG, Talledo OE, Shah KJ, Hayes C (1987) Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina: a 14-year study. Obstet Gynecol 69(5):782–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hacker NF, Eifel PJ (2015) Vaginal cancer. In: Berek JS, Hacker NF (Hrsg) Berek & Hacker’s gynecologic oncology, 6. Aufl. Wolters Kluwer, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Lenehan PM, Meffe F, Lickrish GM (1986) Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: biologic aspects and management. Obstet Gynecol 68(3):333–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Minucci D, Cinel A, Insacco E, Oselladore M (1995) Epidemiological aspects of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN). Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 22(1):36–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Rubin SC, Young J, Mikuta JJ (1985) Squamous carcinoma of the vagina: treatment, complications, and long-term follow-up. Gynecol Oncol 20(3):346–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Rutledge F (1967) Cancer of the vagina. Am J Obstet Gynecol 97(5):635–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Singer A, Monaghan JM (2000) Lower genital tract precancer – colposopy, pathology and treatment, 2. Aufl. Blackwell, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Soost HJ, Baur S (1990) Gynäkologische Zytodiagnostik. Lehrbuch und Atlas. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 264Google Scholar
  10. Stock RG, Chen AS, Seski J (1995) A 30-year experience in the management of primary carcinoma of the vagina: analysis of prognostic factors and treatment modalities. Gynecol Oncol 56(1):45–52.  https://doi.org/10.1006/gyno.1995.1008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Literatur zu Abschn. 8.5

  1. Aho M, Vesterinen E, et al (1991) Natural history of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer (68): 195–197 PMID 2049744Google Scholar
  2. Alemany L, Saunier M, Tinoco L, Quiros B, Varado-Cabrero I, Alejo M et al (2014) Large contribution of human papillomavirus in vaginal neoplastic lesions: a worldwide study in 597 samples. Eur J Cancer 50(16):2846–2854CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blanchard P, Monnier L, Dumas I, Morice P (2011) Low-dose-rate definitive brachytherapy for high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Oncologist 16:182–188PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buck HW (1998) Imiquimod (Aldara). Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 6(2):49–51PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng D, Ng TY, Ngan HY, Wong LC (1999) Wide local excision (WLE) for vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN). Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 78(7):648–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi YI, Hur SY, Park JS, Lee KH (2013) Laparoscopic upper vaginectomy for post-hysterectomy high risk vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and superficially invasive vaginal carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol 11:126.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7819-11-126PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Darragh TM, Colgan TJ, Cox JT, Heller DS, Henry MR, Luff RD et al (2012) The Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology Standardization Project for HPV-associated lesions: background and consensus recommendations from the College of American Pathologist and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. J Lower Genital Tract Dis 16(3):205–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diakomanolis E, Stefanidis K et al (2002) Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: report of 102 cases. Eur J Gyneacol Oncol 23:457–459Google Scholar
  9. Diaz-Arrastia C, Arany I, Robazetti SC, Dinh TV et al (2001) Clinical and molecular responses in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia treated with topical Imiquimod 5 %. Clin Cancer Res 7(10):3031–3033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dodge JA, Eltabbakh GH, Walker RP, Morgan A (2001) Clinical features and risk of recurrence among patients with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 83(2):363–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frega A, Verrone A, Schimberni M, Manzara F, Raalli E (2015) Feasibility of office CO2 laser surgery in patients affected by benign pathologies and congenital malformations of female lower genital tract. Eur Rev Me Pharmacol Sci 19:2528–2536Google Scholar
  12. Gonzales Sanchez JL, Flores MG, Chavez BJ, Deolarte Manzano JM, Andrade Manzano AF (2002) Topical 5-fluorouracil for treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasm. Ginecol Obstet Mex 70:244–247Google Scholar
  13. Graham K, Wright K, Cadwallader B, Reed NS (2007) 20-year retrospective review of medium dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy in VaIN 3. Gynecol Oncol 106(1):105–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gurumurthy M, Cruickshank ME (2012) Management of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Lower Genital Tract Dis 16(3):306–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haidopoulos D, Diakomanolis E, Rodolakis A, Voulgaris Z, Vlachos G, Intsaklis A (2005) Can local application of imiquimod cream be an alternative mode of therapy for patients with high-grade intraepithelial lesions of the vagina? Int J Gynecol Cancer 15(5):898–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hillemans P, Petry KU; DGGG (2013) S2-Leitlinie zur Impfprävention HPV-assozierter Neoplasien (Stand 12/2013). AWMF-Rgisternummer 082/002Google Scholar
  17. Hoffman MS, DeCesare SL, Roberts WS, Fiorica JV, Finan MA, Cavanagh D (1992) Upper vaginectomy for in situ and occult, superficially invasive of the vagina. Am J Obstet Gynecol 166(1):30–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Indemaur MD, Martino MA, Fiorica JV, Roberts WS, Hoffman MS (2005) Upper vaginectomy for the treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 193 (2): 577–580, discussion 580–581Google Scholar
  19. Khan MJ, Stewart Massad L, Kinney W, Gold MA, Maayeaux EJ, Darragh TM, et al (2016) A common clinical dilemma: management of abnormal vaginal cytology and human papillomavirus test results, Gynecol Oncol 05 141 (2): 364–370Google Scholar
  20. Kim HS, Park NH, Park IA, Chung HH, Kim JW, Song YS, Kang SB (2009) Risk factors for recurrence of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia in the vaginal vault after laser vaporization. Lasers Surg Med 41(3):196–202.  https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lopez PA, Denny M, Hartmann AK, Alflen A, Probst HC et al (2017) Transcutaneous immunizzation with a novel imiquimod nanoemulsion induces superior T cell responses and virus protection. J Dermatol Sci 87(3):252–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Luyten A, Hastor H, Vasileva T, Zander M, Petry KU (2014) Laser-skinning colpectomy for extended vaginal inttraepithelial neoplasia and microinvasive cancer. Gyn Oncol 135(2):217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. MacLeod C, Fowler A, Dalrymple C, Atkinson K et al (1997) High-dose-rate brachytherapy in the management of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of the vagina. Gynecol Oncol 65(1):74–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meandzija MP, Locher GW, Dreher E, Berger M (1985) CO2-Laser-Verdampfung bei intraepithelialeer vaginaler Neoplasie. Gynäkol Rdsch 25(Suppl 3):82–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nelson EL, Stockdale CK et al (2013) Vulvar and vaginal HPV disease. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 40(2):359–376.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ogc.2013.03.003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ogino I, Kitamura T, Okajima H, Matsubara S (1998) High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy in the management of cervical and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1 40 (4): 881–887Google Scholar
  27. Perez CA, Grigsby PW, Garipagaoglu M (1999) Dactors affecting long-term outcome of irradiation in carcinoma of the vagina. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 44:35–37Google Scholar
  28. Perrrotta M, Marchitelli CE, Velazco AF, Tauscher P, Lopez G et a (2013) Use of CO2 laser vaporisation for the treatment of high – grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. J low Genit Tract Dis 17(1):23–27.  https://doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0b013e318259a3ecCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Petrilli ES, Townsend DE, Morrow CP, Nakao CY (1980) Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: biologic aspects and treatment with topical 5-fluorouracil and the carbon dioxide laser. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1: 138 (3): 321–328Google Scholar
  30. Piovano E, Macchi C, Attamante L, Fuso L, Maina G (2015) CO2 laser vaporisation for the treattment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: effectiveness and predictive factors for recurrence. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 36(4):383–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rhodes HE, Chenervert L, Munsell M et al (2014) Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN 2/3): comparing clinical outcomes of treatment with intravaginal estrogen. J Low Genit Tract Dis 18(2):115–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rome RM, England PG et al (2000) Management of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: a series of 132 cases with long-term follow-up. Int J Gynecol Cancer 10(5):382–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Song JH, Lee JH, Park JH, Hong SH et al (2014) High- dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Res Treat 46(1):74–80PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tainio K, Jakobsson M, Louvanto K, Kalliala I, Pavonen J, Nieminen P, Riska A (2016) Randomised trial on treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia – Imiquimod, laser vaporization and expectant management. Int J Cancer 15 139 (10): 2353–2358Google Scholar
  35. Wallin J (1977) 5-Fluorouracil in the treatment of penile and urethral condylomata accuminata. Brit J Vener Dis 53:240–243Google Scholar
  36. Walter A, Schäfer M, Cecconi V, Matter C, Urosevic-Maiwald M, Belloni B, Schönewolf N, Dummer R, Bloch W, Werner S, Beer HD, Knuth A, van den Broek M (2013) Aldara activates TLR7-independent immune defence. Nat Commun 4:1560.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang Y, Kong WM, Wu YM, Wang JD et al (2014) Therapeutic effect of laser vaporization for vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia following hysterectomy due to premalignant and malignant lesions. J Obstet Gynecol Res 40(6):1740–1747.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jog.12383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yalcin OT, Rutherford TJ, Chambers SK, Chambers JT, Schwartz PE (2003) Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: treatment by carbon dioxide laser and risk factors for failure. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 10 106 (1): 64–68Google Scholar

Literatur zu Abschn. 8.6

  1. Bulten J, de Wilde Peter CM, Boonstra H, Gemmink JH, Hanselaar AGJM (2000) Proliferation in atypical atrophic pap smears. Gynecol Oncol 79:225–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dodge JA, Eltabbakh GH, Mount SL, Walker RP, Morgan A (2001) Clinical features and risk of recurrence among patients with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 83(2):363–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Duraipandian S, Zheng W, Ng J, Low JJ, Ilancheran A, Huang Z (2013) Non-invasive analysis of hormonal variations and effect of postmenopausal Vagifem treatment on women using in vivo high wave number confocal Raman spectroscopy. Analyst 138:4120–4128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Frega A (2007) Prediction of persistent vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia in previously hysterectomized women by high-risk HPV DNA detection. Cancer Letters 249:235–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Frega A, Sopracordevole F, Assorgi C, Lombardi D, De Sanctis V, Catalano A, Matteucci E, Milazzo GN, Ricciardi E, Moscarini M (2013) Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: a therapeutical dilemma. Anticancer Res 33(1):29–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Frega A, Sesti F, Sopracordevole F, Biamonti A, Votano S, Catalano A, Milazzo GN, Gentile M, Ricciardi E, French D, Moscarini M (2014) Multiple intraepithelial neoplasias of the lower female genital tract: the reliability of HPV mRNA test. J Low Genit Tract Dis 18(2):174–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hellman K, Lundell M, Silfverswärd C, Nilsson B, Hellström AC, Frankendal B (2006) Clinical and histopathologic factors related to prognosis in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. Int J Gynecol Cancer 16(3):1201–1211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hodeib M, Cohen JG, Mehta S, Rimel BJ, Walsh CS, Li AJ, Karlan BY, Cass I (2016) Recurrence and risk of progression to lower genital tract malignancy in women with high grade VAIN. Gynecol Oncol 141:507–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jentschke M, Hoffmeister V, Soergel P, Hillemanns P (2016) Clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Arch Gynecol Obstet 293(2):415–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Joura EA, Garland SM, Paavonen J, Ferris DG, Perez G, Ault KA, Huh WK, Sings HL, James MK, Haupt RM, FUTURE I and II Study Group (2012) Effect of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in a subgroup of women with cervical and vulvar disease: retrospective pooled analysis of trial data. BMJ 344:e1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kang WD, Choi HS, Kim SM (2013) Is vaccination with quadrivalent HPV vaccine after loop electrosurgical excision procedure effective in preventing recurrence in patients with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2–3)? Gynecol Oncol 130:264–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lamos C, Mihaljevic C, Aulmann S, Bruckner T, Domschke C, Wallwiener M, Paringer C, Fluhr H, Schott S, Dinkic C, Brucker J, Golatta M, Gensthaler L, Eichbaum M, Sohn C, Rom J (2016) Detection of human papillomavirus infection in patients with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. PLoS one 11(12):e0167386.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167386PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Santoso JT, Crigger M, English E, Wan J, Likes W (2012) Smoking cessation counseling in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 125(3):716–719.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.02.018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Schockaert S, Poppe W, Arbyn M, Verguts T, Verguts J (2008) Incidence of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia after hysterectomy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a retrospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199 (2): 113.e1–5Google Scholar
  15. Silva C, Almeida EC, Côbo Ede C, Zeferino VF, Murta EF, Etchebehere RM (2014) A retrospective study on cervical intraepithelial lesions of low-grade and undetermined significance: evolution, associated factors and cytohistological correlation. Sao Paulo Med J 132(2):92–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. So KA, Hong JH, Hwang JH, Song SH, Lee JK, Lee NW, Lee KW (2009) The utility of the human papillomavirus DNA load for the diagnosis and prediction of persistent vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Gynecol Oncol 20(4):232–237PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sopracordevole F, Mancioli F, Clemente N, De Piero G, Buttignol M, Giorda G, Ciavattini A (2015) Abnormal Pap smear and diagnosis of high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: a retrospective cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore) 94(42)Google Scholar
  18. Sopracordevole F, De Piero G, Clemente N, Buttignol M, Mancioli F, Di Giuseppe J, Canzonieri V, Giorda G, Ciavattini A (2016) Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: histopathological upgrading of lesions and evidence of occult vaginal cancer. J Low Genit Tract Dis 20(1):70–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Stokes-Lampard H, Wilson S, Waddell C (2006) Vaginal vault smears after hysterectomy for reasons other than malignancy: a systematic review of the literature. BJOG 113(12):1354–1365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sven Ackermann
    • 1
  • Christian Dannecker
    • 2
  • Lars-Christian Horn
    • 3
  • Hans-Georg Schnürch
    • 4
  • Peer Hantschmann
    • 5
  • Agnieszka Denecke
    • 6
  • Karl Ulrich Petry
    • 6
  • Grit Mehlhorn
    • 7
  1. 1.FrauenklinikKlinikum DarmstadtDarmstadtDeutschland
  2. 2.Klinik und Poliklinik für Frauenheilkunde und GeburtshilfeKlinikum der Universität MünchenMünchenDeutschland
  3. 3.Arbeitsgruppe Mamma-, Gynäko- & Perinatalpathologie Institut für PathologieUniversitätsklinikum LeipzigLeipzigDeutschland
  4. 4.Ehem Lukaskrankenhaus NeussKaarstDeutschland
  5. 5.Klinik für Frauenheilkunde und GeburtshilfeKreiskliniken Altötting-BurghausenAltöttingDeutschland
  6. 6.FrauenklinikKlinikum WolfsburgWolfsburgDeutschland
  7. 7.ErlangenDeutschland

Personalised recommendations